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Allah

Allāh (الله) is the proper name of God, and humble submission to His Will, Divine Ordinances and Commandments is the pivot of the faith. He is unique (Wāḥid) and inherently one (ʾAḥad), all-merciful and omnipotent.

Prophet

The Qur'an (القرآن) represents the words of Allāh revealed to Prophet Muhammad, arabic محمد (Peace be upon him) through the archangel Gabriel (جبريل).The Holy Prophet's message transformed the society and moral order of life in the Arabian Peninsula through reorientation of society as regards to identity, world view, and the hierarchy of values.

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The preferred religion

Al-Islam (الإسلام) is the monotheistic and Abrahamic way of life articulated by the Qur'an & by the teachings & the normative example (the Sunnah or سنة & Hadith or حديث‎) of Prophet Muhammad (صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم), the conclusive prophet of Allāh. A person with this belief is a Muslim (مسلم‎).

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The Life of Prophet Muhammad (ﷺ)


 

PACT OF NAJRAN

PACT OF NAJRAN

In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.

This pact of Muhammad (S.A.W.), Prophet of Allah is for the people of Najran.

1. Although Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.), had the power to take a share from their produce, gold, silver, weapons and slaves, he treated the people generously and leaving aside all these things, he fixed for them two thousand hullas of the value of one Auqia each, annually — one thousand (to be supplied) in the month of Rajab and one thousand in the month of Safar.

2. Each Hulls shall be of the value of one Auqia and whichever is of more or less value, shall be accounted for accordingly.

3. If instead of Hullas, something like armours or horses or riding camels are given it shall be accepted in accordance with its evaluation.

4. It shall be obligatory on the people of Najran to arrange for the stay of my workers. But they will have to pay taxes within one month. They should not be made to stay far more than a month.

5. If due to a rebellion in Yemen we have to wage war, the people of Najran will have to lend 30 armours, 20 horses and 30 camels. If any of the animals are lost, the people of Najran shall be provided substitutes.

6. The lives of the people of Najran and its surrounding area, their religion, their land, property, cattle and those of them who are present or absent, their messengers and their places of worship are under the protection of Allah and guardianship of His Prophet.Their present state shall neither be interfered with, nor their rights meddled with, nor their idols deformed. No Usqu (Bishop) Rahib or Waqa, shall be removed from his office. The intention being that no change in whatever state every one is; shall be made (status quo shall be maintained).

7. Neither the people shall be punished for any past crime or murder, nor shall they be compelled to do military service. Neither shall Ushr be imposed on them nor any army shall enter their area.

8. If any one of the people of Najran demands his rights, justice shall be done between the plaintiff and respondent. Neither oppression shall be allowed to be perpetrated on them, nor shall they be permitted to oppress any one.

9. Whoever from the people of Najran takes interest alter the conclusion of the pact, shall be excluded from my assurance.

10. No one from the people of Najran shall be implicated in the crime of someone else.

11. Whatever has been written in this pact, Allah and Muhammad His Prophet (S.A.W.) are guarantors for it, unless there is an order from Allah, in this connection, and as long as the people of Najran remain faithful and adhere to the conditions which have been made for them, except that some one compels them to do otherwise.

Seal: Allah’s Prophet Muhammad

Note: Najran which was the biggest centre of Christianity in Arabia is a district of north Yemen. There was a very splendid Cathedral which the Christians regarded as their Kaaba. Large estate attached to the Cathedrals was a source of big income. When the people of Najran received the letter of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.), they sent a delegation to the Prophet (S.A.W.), which studied the conditions and had discussions. The Holy Prophet (S.A.W.), invited them to a Mubahila (Invocation of Allah’s Curse an the party which is in the wrong) and asked them to pray to Allah along with their kith and kin, to send His Curse on the liars. The delegation did not accept the challenge lest they should be destroyed and agreed to conclude a pact.

 

PACT OF BANI GHADAYA AND BANI URAIZ

PACT OF BANI GHADAYA AND BANI URAIZ

The following pact was made with the Jews of Bani Ghadaya.

In the name of Allah, The Compassionate, the Merciful.

From Muhammad, Prophet of Allah –

To the Jews of Bani Ghadaya.

1. Responsibility in respect of the Jews of Ghadaya is assumed.

2. Jiziya has been laid down for these people.

3. These people shall not rise against the Prophet in any way.

4. These people shall not be exiled from their homes.

5. Nothing shall render this pact void.

Seal: Allah’s Prophet Muhammad

 

TREATY OF HUDAYBIA

TREATY OF HUDAYBIA

In Thy Name O Allah

1. This is the treaty in which Muhammad (S.A.W.) son of Abdullah has made a compromise with Sohail son of ‘Umar.

2. There shall be no mutual war for ten years.

3. During this period, every person belonging to the two parties shall be safe and secure and none shall raise a sword against the other.

4. If any person from amongst the Quraish goes to Medinah he shall be sent back, but if any Muslim goes to Mecca, he shall not be sent back.

5. The tribes of Arabia would be free to enter into treaty from the side of either of the two parties.

6. The Muslims shall return this time and come back next year, but they shall not stay in Mecca for more than three days.

7. They shall not come back armed and shall bring with them swords only, but these shall not be kept out of scabbards and the scabbards kept in bags.

 

PACT OF BANU GHIFAR

PACT OF BANU GHIFAR

In the name of Allah the Compassionate, the Merciful.

1. Banu Ghifar shall be regarded as from amongst the Muslims. They shall have the same rights as that of the Muslims and Banu Ghifar shall be subject to the same injunctions, as are applicable to the Muslims.

2. Muhammad, the Prophet (S.A.W.) has entered into a pact to safeguard their life and property and the responsibility of Allah and His Prophet is for it.

3. They shall be helped against such an enemy as invades them outrageously.

4. It shall be incumbent on these people to give help, when it is called for by the Prophet of Allah (S.A.W.). But in religious wars each party shall remain impartial.

5. Whoever contravenes it, this pact shall not stand as an argument (or excuse) for him.

Note: Bani Ghifar Tribe sent a delegation to the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) and offered to enter into a pact with him. The offer was accepted by the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) who had a pact prepared. Before entering the fold of Islam, the people of the tribe were highway men and were professional dacoits who looted caravans and tribes. Abu Zar Ghifari (R.A.A.) the well-known companion of the Prophet (S.A.W.) belonged to this tribe.

 

PACT OF BANU DHAMRA

PACT OF BANU DHAMRA

In the name of Allah the Compassionate, the Merciful

This writing is from Allah’s Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.). for Bani Dhamra.

1. These people shall have the security of life and property.

2. These people shall be helped against whoever attacks them.

3. It shall be binding on these people always to help the Prophet (S.A.W.) and whenever the Prophet of Allah sends for their help, they shall give help, but assistance in religious wars shall not be essential.

4. As long as these people adhere to the pact, they shall be assisted.

5. Allah and His Prophet have a responsibility in this pact.

Note: A number of such pacts were concluded with the tribes living close to Bani Dhamra. Details could be seen in the Tabar Ibne S’ad — vol, 3, p. 24. The following pact with Bani Zur’a and Bani Rab’a of Juhaina is of the similar nature. FOR BANI ZUR’A AND BANI RAB’A

1. The life and property of Bani Zur’a and Bani Rab’a shall have security and peace.

2. Bani Zur’a and Bani Rab’a shall be assisted against any person who invades them.

3. But there shall be no interference in their internal conflicts.

4. The pious and God-fearing people living in the vicinity of these tribes shall have the same rights to which the people of these tribes are entitled.

 

SECOND INJUNCTION OF THE HOLY PROPHET (S.A.W.) FOR JUHAINA

SECOND INJUNCTION OF THE HOLY PROPHET (S.A.W.) FOR JUHAINA

In the name of Allah the Compassionate, the Merciful

Whoever from the tribe of Juhaina accepts Islam, says prayers, pays the Zakat, remains subservient to Allah and his Prophet (S.A.W.) and keeps on paying Khums out of the gains of war and declares his acceptance of Islam and keeps aloof from the infidels; he is in the protection of Allah and His Prophet (S.A.W.).

As regards the pawned property; of the payable loans, only the amount of the principal shall be payable, after (the debtor’s) conversion to Islam. Interests on the pawned amount shall stand cancelled. As Zakat on fruit — one tenth of the produce, shall be payable. Whoever joins these people shall have the same rights and the same terms shall apply to him..

SEAL : ALLAH’S PROPHET MUHAMMAD

Note: When after sometime, most of the people of the tribe accepted Islam, the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) issued an injunction to these people, mentioning their duties.

 

‘PACT WITH THE TRIBE OF JUHAINA

‘PACT WITH THE TRIBE OF JUHAINA

In the name of Allah the Compassionate, the Merciful

1. The life and property of the Juhaina tribe shall be safe.

2. Whoever commits an outrage on them or invades them, they (Juhaina) shall be helped against him.

3. However, whatever trouble or war takes place amongst their kith and kin or if it concerns their religious affairs, help therein shall not be necessary.

4. The good and God-fearing people living near these people, shall be entitled to the same rights as are admissible to Juhaina.

 

THE TREATY OF MEDINAH

THE TREATY OF MEDINAH

In the name of Allah the Compassionate, the Merciful

1. This agreement of Allah’s Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.) shall apply to the migrants, Quraish, the citizens of Yathrib (Medinah) who have accepted Islam and all such people who are in agreement with the above mentioned bodies and side with them in war.

2. Those who are a party to this agreement shall be treated as a body separate from all those who are not a party to this agreement.

3. The Quraish migrants are in themselves a party and as in the past; shall be responsible for the payment of blood-money on behalf of their criminals and shall themselves get their prisoners freed, after the payment of ransom. All this process shall be in accordance with the principles of belief (Iman) and justice.

4. Bani Auf shall be responsible for their own tribe and shall jointly pay their blood-money in accordance with article 3 and shall themselves be responsible for getting their prisoners freed after paying ransom. All this work shall be completed in conformity with the principle of honesty and justice.

5. Bani Al Haris shall be responsible for their own tribe and shall jointly pay their blood-money in accordance with article 3 and shall themselves be responsible for getting their prisoners freed after paying ransom. All this work shall be completed in conformity with the principle of honesty and justice.

6. Bani Sa’ida shall be responsible for their own tribe and shall jointly pay their blood-money, in accordance with article 3 and shall themselves be responsible for getting their prisoners freed after paying ransom. All this work shall be completed in conformity with the principle of honesty and justice.

7. Bani Jusham shall be responsible for their own tribe and shall jointly pay their blood-money, in accordance with article 3 and shall themselves be responsible for getting their prisoners freed after paying ransom. All this work shall be completed in conformity with the principle of honesty and justice.

8. Bani An-Najjar shall be responsible for their own tribe and shall jointly pay their blood-money in accordance with article 3 and shall themselves be responsible for getting their prisoners freed after paying ransom. All this work shall be completed in conformity with the principle of honesty and justice,

9. Bani Amr shall be responsible for their own tribe and shall jointly pay their blood-money in accordance with article 3 and shall themselves be responsible for getting their prisoners freed after paying ransom. All this work shall be completed in conformity with the principle of honesty and justice.

10. Bani Al Wabiyyat shall be responsible for their own tribe and shall jointly pay their blood-money, in accordance with article 3 and shall themselves be responsible for getting their prisoners freed after paying ransom. All this work shall be completed in conformity with the principle of honesty and justice.

11. Bani Al-Aus shall be responsible for their own tribe and shall jointly pay their blood-money in accordance with article 3 and shall themselves be responsible for getting their prisoners freed after paying ransom. All this work shall be completed in conformity with the principle of honesty and justice.

12. If from amongst the Muslims, an indigent person is guilty of an offence, in which blood-money becomes due or he is taken prisoner and is unable to pay ransom; it shall be incumbent on other Muslims to pay blood-money or ransom on his behalf and get him freed, in order that virtue and sympathy in the mutual relationship of the Muslims may be created.

13. No Muslim shall be hostile to the slave set free by another Muslim.

14. It shall be the duty of the Muslims to oppose openly every such person as created mischief and riot and troubles human beings or forcibly wants to grab something and resorts to oppression. All the Muslims shall remain mutually united in punishing such a person, even if he is the son of anyone of them.

15. No Muslim shall have the right of killing another Muslim in exchange of an infidel (who is at war) or assist a person who is at war with the Muslims.

16. The promise of Allah, responsibility and protection are all one and the same. This means that if a Muslim gives refuge to someone, it shall be incumbent on all Muslims to honour it; although the Muslim providing the refuge may be a plebeian. All the Muslims are brethren amongst themselves, as compared to others.

17. It is incumbent on all the Muslims to help and extend sympathetic treatment to the Jews who have entered into an agreement with us. Neither an oppression of any type should be perpetrated on them nor should their enemy be helped against them.

18. The truce of all the Muslims shall be one: When there is a war in the way of Allah; none of the Muslims leaving aside other Muslims, shall enter into a peace treaty with an enemy, unless the treaty in one and the same for all the Muslims.

19. All the groups who participate in war along with us, shall be afforded an opportunity to rest by turns.

20. The provision of subsistence to the dependants of the Muslim who get martyred in the way of Allah, shall be the responsibility of all the Muslims.

21. No doubt all the God-fearing and devout Muslims are on the right path and are the followers of the best way of life.

22. Neither shall any non-Muslim who is a party to this agreement, provide refuge to the life and property of any Quraish nor shall assist any non-Muslim against a Muslim.

23. If someone murders a Muslim and there is a proof against him, the murderer shall be punished. But if the next of kin is prepared to accept blood-money, the murderer could be set free after the payment of blood-money. It shall be obligatory on all the Muslims to observe this injunction without any exception. Nothing other than the prescribed injunctions shall be acceptable.

24. For a Muslim, who after accepting the treaty, has agreed to abide by it and he believes in Allah and the Day of Judgement, it would neither be permissible to create a new thing or practice, nor would it be right for him to have dealings with such a person as does not respect this treaty. Whoever infringes this injunction, the curse and wrath of Allah shall descend on him on the Day of Judgement, and no excuse and request for forgiveness shall be accepted from him, in this respect.

25. When there arises a mutual difference about anything in this agreement, the matter shall be referred for a decision to Allah and Muhammad (S.A.W.).

26. After the treaty, it shall be obligatory on the Jews to render financial assistance to the Muslims when they are at war with an enemy.

27. The Jews of Bani Auf, who are a party to this agreement and are the supporters of the Muslims, shall adhere to their religion and the Muslims to theirs. Excepting religious matters, the Muslims and Jews shall be regarded as belonging to a single party. If anyone from amongst them commits an outrage or breaks a promise or is guilty of a crime, he shall deserve punishment for his crime.

28. The Jews of Bani An-Najjar, who are a party to this agreement and are the supporters of the Muslims, shall adhere to their religion and the Muslims to theirs. Excepting religious matters, the Muslims and the Jews shall be regarded as belonging to a single party. If anyone from amongst them commits an outrage or breaks a promise or is guilty of a crime, he shall deserve punishment for his crime.

29. The Jews of Bani Al-Haris, who are party to this agreement and are the supporters of the Muslims, shall adhere to their religion and the Muslims to theirs. Excepting religious matters, the Muslims and the Jews shall be regarded as belonging to a single party. If anyone from amongst them commits an outrage or a breaks promise or is guilty of a crime, he shall deserve punishment for his crime.

30. The Jews of Bani Sa’ida, who are a party to this agreement and are the supporters of the Muslims, shall adhere to their religion and the Muslims to theirs. Excepting religious matters, the Muslims and the Jews shall be regarded as belonging to a single party. If anyone from amongst them commit an outrage or breaks a promise or is guilty of a crime, he shall deserve punishment for his crime.

31. The Jews of Bani Hashm, who are a party to this agreement and are the supporters of the Muslims shall adhere to their religion and the Muslims to theirs. Excepting religious matters, the Muslims and Jews shall be regarded as belonging to a single party. If anyone from amongst them commit an outrage or breaks promise or is guilty of a crime, he shall deserve punishment for his crime.

32. The Jews of Bani Al-Aus who are a party to this agreement and are the supporters of the Muslims, shall adhere to their religion and the Muslims to theirs. Excepting religious matters, the Muslims and Jews shall be regarded as belonging to a single party. If anyone from amongst them commits an outrage or breaks promise or is guilty of a crime, he shall deserve punishment for his crime.

33. The Jews of Bani Sa’alaba, who are a party to this agreement and are the supporters of the Muslims, shall adhere to their religion and the Muslims to theirs. Excepting religious matters, the Muslims and Jews shall be regarded as belonging to a single party. If anyone from amongst them commits an outrage or breaks a promise or is guilty of a crime, he shall deserve punishment for his crime.

34. The Jews of Bani Jafna, who are a party to this agreement and are the supporters of the Muslims, shall adhere to their religion and the Muslims to theirs. Excepting religious matters, the Muslims and the Jews shall be regarded as belonging to a single party. If anyone from amongst them commits an outrage or breaks promise or is guilty of a crime, he shall deserve punishment for his crime.

35. The Jews of Bani Al Shotaiba, who are a party to this agreement and are the supporters of the Muslims, shall adhere to their religion and the Muslims to theirs. Excepting religious matters, the Muslims and the Jews shall be regarded as belonging to a single party. If anyone from amongst them commits an outrage or breaks a promise or is guilty of a crime, he shall deserve punishment for his crime.

36. The subordinate branches of the above mentioned tribes shall have the same rights as are enjoyed by the original branches.

37. None of the treaty makers shall take any military action, without the permission of Muhammad (S.A.W.).

38. No hindrance shall be created in the requital or avenging of an injury or a blow. Whoever commits a breach of promise, shall deserve punishment for it and whoever abides most faithfully by this agreement, Allah will may help him.

39. If a third community wages war against the Muslims and Jews treaty makers, they will have to fight unitedly. They shall help each other mutually and there shall be mutual goodwill and faithfulness. The Jews shall bear their expenses of war and the Muslim their expenses.

40. It is incumbent on the parties to the agreement to treat each other sincerely and to wish each other well. None shall subject the other to oppression and injustice and the oppressed shall be helped.

41. The Jews shall share the expenses along with the Muslims as long as they fight jointly.

42. The plain of Yathrib, which is surrounded by hills, shall be a haram (haven) for the treaty makers.

43. The same treatment shall be meted out to a refugee, to which a person giving the refuge, is entitled; he shall not be harmed. A refuge shall abide by this agreement and he shall not be permitted to break a promise.

44. Nobody shall be provided a refuge without the permission of the people of that place.

45. If there is any occurrence or difference of opinion amongst the treaty makers, which might result in a breach of peace, the matter shall be referred, for a decision, to Allah and Muhammad, the Prophet of Allah (S.A.W.). Allah shall be with him, who abides most by the treaty.

46. None shall provide protection to the Quraish of Mecca or any of their helpers.

47. If Yathrib (Medinah) is invaded, the Muslims and the Jews both shall put up a joint defence.

48. If the Muslims make a peace treaty with some one, the Jews shall abide by it. And if the Jews make peace with somebody, it shall be obligatory on the Muslims to extend similar co-operation to the Jews. However, in the case of a religious war of a party, it shall not be the responsibility of the other party to co-operate in it.

49. In the case of an invasion of Medinah, every party will have to defend the part which is in front of it.

50. The helpers of the Aus tribe shall have the same rights, as are enjoyed by the parties to this treaty, provided they too show their loyalty. Whoever adheres to this treaty most, Allah is his supporter and helper.

51. If anyone of the parties to this treaty, has to go out of Medinah, on account of the exigency of war, it shall be entitled to peace and protection. And whoever stays in Medinah, shall also be entitled to peace. Neither shall anybody be oppressed nor breach of promise shall be permissible for him. Whoever will respect this agreement with his heart and will abide by it, Allah and His Prophet (S.A.W.) are his protectors.

 

PACT OF BANI GHADAYA AND BANI URAIZ

PACT OF BANI GHADAYA AND BANI URAIZ

The following pact was made with the Jews of Bani Ghadaya.

In the name of Allah, The Compassionate, the Merciful.

From Muhammad, Prophet of Allah –

To the Jews of Bani Ghadaya.

1. Responsibility in respect of the Jews of Ghadaya is assumed.

2. Jiziya has been laid down for these people.

3. These people shall not rise against the Prophet in any way.

4. These people shall not be exiled from their homes.

5. Nothing shall render this pact void.

Seal: Allah’s Prophet Muhammad

 

PACT OF BANU GHIFAR

PACT OF BANU GHIFAR

In the name of Allah the Compassionate, the Merciful.

1. Banu Ghifar shall be regarded as from amongst the Muslims. They shall have the same rights as that of the Muslims and Banu Ghifar shall be subject to the same injunctions, as are applicable to the Muslims.

2. Muhammad, the Prophet (S.A.W.) has entered into a pact to safeguard their life and property and the responsibility of Allah and His Prophet is for it.

3. They shall be helped against such an enemy as invades them outrageously.

4. It shall be incumbent on these people to give help, when it is called for by the Prophet of Allah (S.A.W.). But in religious wars each party shall remain impartial.

5. Whoever contravenes it, this pact shall not stand as an argument (or excuse) for him.

Note: Bani Ghifar Tribe sent a delegation to the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) and offered to enter into a pact with him. The offer was accepted by the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) who had a pact prepared. Before entering the fold of Islam, the people of the tribe were highway men and were professional dacoits who looted caravans and tribes. Abu Zar Ghifari (R.A.A.) the well-known companion of the Prophet (S.A.W.) belonged to this tribe.