The Life of Prophet Muhammad (ﷺ)
Prophet Muhammad (SAW) In Buddhist Scriptures
THE BUDDHIST PROPHECY
(From the Burmese source.s.)
The Buddha said to Sariputta:-
"......................... Our cycle is a happy one. Three leaders have already lived. Kakusandha, Konogamana And eke the leader Kasapa. The Buddha supreme am I. But after me Metteya comes. While still this happy cycle lasts, Before its tale of years shall lapse This Buddha then Metteya. called Supreme, and of all men the chief"
Buddhism in Translation by Warren. PP 481 -2.
(From Ceylon Sources.)
Ananda "said to the Blessed One.
'Who shall teach us when thou art gone?"'
And the Blessed One replied:-
'I am not the first Buddha who came upon the earth, nor shall I be the last. In due time anothr Buddha will arise in the world, a holy one, a supremely enlightened one, endowed with wisdom in conduct, auspicious, knowing the universe, an incomparable leader of men, a master of angels and mortals. He will reveal to you the same eternal truths which I have taught you. He will preach his religion, glorious in its origin, glorious at the climax, and, glorious at the goal. He will proclaim a religious life, wholly perfect a pure, such as I now proclaim. His disciples will number many thousand, while mine number many hundred.'
Ananda said, 'How shall we know him?'
The Blessed One replied, 'He will be known Maitreya.......................'
The Gospel of Buddha by Carus. PP. 217-8
The Buddha said:-
"Monks. in the days when men live 80000 years, there will arise in the world a Buddha named Metteyyo (the benevolent one), a holy one (Arahat), a supremely enlightened one, endowed with wisdom in conduct; auspicious, knowing the universe, an incomparable charioteer of men who are tamed; a master of and mortals; a Blessed Buddha; even as I now have arisen in the world, a Buddha with these same qualities endowed. What he has realised by his own supernal knowledge he will publish to this universe with its angels, its fiends, and its archangels, and to the race of philosophers and brahmins, princes and peoples; even as I now having all this knowledge do publish the same unto the same. He will preach his religion, glorious in its origin, glorious at the climax, glorious at the goal, in the spirit and the letter. He will proclaim a religious life wholly perfect and thoroughly pure, even as I now preach my religion, and a like life do proclaim. He will keep up a society numbering many chousand. even as I now keep up a society of monks numbering many hundred."
Buddhist and Christian Gospes by Edmunds. Vol II. PP. 160-1.
"At that period, brethren, there will arise in the world an Exalted One named Metteya, Arahant, fully Awakened, abounding in wisdom and goodness, happy, with knowledge of the worlds, unsurpassed as a guide to mortals willing to be led, a teacher for gods and men, an Exalted One, a Buddha even as I am now. He, by himself, will thoroughly see and know, as it were face to face, this universe, with its world of the spirits, its Brahamas, and its Maras, and its world of recluses and Brahmins, of princes and peoples, even as I now by myself, thoroughly know and see them. The truth (the Norm) lovely in its origin, lovely in its progress, lovely in its consummation, will he proclaim, both in the spirit and in the letter; the higher life will he make known, in all its fulness and all its purity, even as I do now. He will be accompanied by a congregation of some thousands of brethren, even as I am now accompanied by a congregation of some hundreds of brethren.
Cakkavatti-Sihanada Suttanta. The Mahabodhdi Society Translation.
(From the Chinese-Sanskrit sources.)
"In the old days when the Tathagata was living at Rajagriha (Wang-she), on the Gridhra-kuta(others think at "Benares") mountain, he spoke thus to the Bhikshus: 'In future years, when this country of Jambudvipa shall be at peace and rest, and the age of men shall amount to 80000 years, there shall be a Brahman called Maitreya (Sse-che). His body shall be of pure gold, bright, glistening and pure. Leaving his home he shall become a perfect Buddha, and preach the threefold("Thrice repeated") Law for the benefit of all creatures. Those who shall be saved are those who live, in whom the roots of merit have been planted through my bequeathed Law. These all conceiving their minds in profound respect for three precious objects of worship, whether they be already professed disciples or not, whether they be obedient to the precepts or not, will be led by the converting power (of his preaching) to acquire the fruit (of Bodhi) and final deliverance. Whilst declaring the threefold Law for the conversion of those who have been influenced by my bequeathed Law, by this means also hereafter others will be converted."
Si-Yu-Ki. Vol. 2. Pp. 46-7.
(From the Tibetan sources)
"It is said up to the time when Phanchhen-rinpochhe (The Great Jewel of Wisdom) condescends to be reborn in the land of the P'helings (Westerners) and appearing as the Spiritual Conqueror (Chom-den-da), destroys the error and ignorance of ages, it will be of little use to try to uproot the misconceptions of P'heling-pa (Europe); her sons will listen to none."
The Secret Doctrine by Blavatsky. Vol. III. P. 412.
From the above it is clear that the Buddha Gautama foretold the advent of a person named Maitreya, or Metteyya as his successor.
IDENTIFICATION OF MAITREYA.
Some Buddhists consider that the Buddha Maitreya has appeared (Studies in Japanese Buddhism by Reischaner. P. 264.):
1. "Wu, the mother of the sixth emperor of the T'ang dynasty in China, was presented a Sutra named 'Ta-yun-king, in the year 690. 'It stated that she was Maitreya, the Buddha that was to come'." (Chinese Buddhism by J. Edkins. P. 122.)
2. Kings, Yeula and Vijayavirya, were supposed as incarnations of "Bodhisattva Maitreya." (Life of Buddha by Rockhill. PP. 237-8.)
3. The Burmese monk, Ledi Sayadaw, "has been proclaiming far and wide the near coming of Bodhisattva Maitreya, who, he says, has left the Tusita Heaven, and was in 1914. A. D. on earth as a boy." (The Coming World Teacher by P. Parki, P. 52.)
In the past(Si-Yu.Ki by Beal. V.I. P.226.) as well as in the present(Buddhism and Buddhists in China by Hodous. P.38), Buddhists have pretended to receive written books of revelation, from Maitreya. They have even imagined him to come down from heaven for making the image of the Buddha Gautama(Si-Yu-Ki Vol.II. PP.121-2.).
The above claims have not received the serious attention of the Buddhist world and therefore need comment on our part. The Buddhists. like some of the Theosophists, await the advent of Maitreya in future. The Buddhists all over the world have build images of Maitreya, sometimes as high as 70 feet or more (Hodous PP. 120-1). The European traveller well knows the "Laughing Buddha" Maitreya of the Chinese (Ibid PP. 20-1).
WAS SHANKARACHARYA THE BUDDHA MAITREYA?
Some Brahmans consider the Buddha Gautama as the 9th Avatar of Vishnu (The Essence of Buddhism by L Narasu. P. 27 Foot Note). Some Brahmans a1ong with the Theosophists consider that Shankaracharya was the expected Maitreya:-
"Esoteric teaching is to the effect that Shankaracharya was a Buddha in all respects, in a new body........ I have received the information I am now giving from a Brahman Adwaiti, of Southern India- not directly from the Tibetan instructor.........Some of the later incarnations of Buddha are described differently as overshadowings by the SPIRIT OF BUDDHA, but in person of Shankaracharya he reappeared on earth. The object he had in view was to fill up some gaps and repair certain errors in his own previous teachings; for there is no contention in the esoteric Buddhism that even a Buddha can be absolutely infalliable at every moment of his career....." (Esoteric Buddhism by A.P.Sennett. P.149)
Shankaracharya cannot be the Buddha Maitreya, for:
1. he never gave out in his life time that he was the Buddha Maitreya;
2. his life, as will appear later on, does not display the "TEN PERFECTIONS" (Warren PP. 22-37), a necessary possession for a FULLY ENLIGHTENED BUDDHA;
3. he took up the cause of the Vedas (Satyarath Prakash by Mool Shankar PP.415-16) against the Buddhists. Shankaracharya writes: -
(a) "The Veda.s are the highest authority" (Sankaras Select Works, by S. Vankataramanan P. 205)
(b) "There is no authority for knowledge, equal to the Veda." (Ibid P. 206.)
Some oriental and occidental scholars and the Buddhist divines consider that the Buddha Gautama made light of the Vedas: -
(a) "Empty, forsooth, are these Vedas, and as chaff. There is in them neither reality, nor worth nor essential truth". (S. B. E. Vol. XXV. P. 18.) - Nagasena
(b) Pt. Mool Shanker, more commonly known as Dayananda Saraswati, the founder of Arya Samaj, the modern Protestant Hinduism, considers Buddhism "a strong and fearful Veda and Shastra denouncing" religion (Satyarath Prakash P. 414.)
(c) "Buddha discredited the sacrificial system; he censured with bitter irony the knowledge of the Vedic scribes as sheer folly." (Buddha P. 172.) - Oldenberg
(d) The Buddha Gautama "Scoffed at the Vedas." (Asoka P. 35.) - Macphail
This view is supported by numerous sayings of Sakya Muni:-
(a) "Reading the Vedas, making of offerings to priests, or sacrifices to the gods, self-mortification by heat or cold, and many such like penances performed for the sake of immortality, these do not cleanse the man, not free from delusions." (Buddhism by Rhys Davids. P. 131.) - Amagandh( Sutt)
(b) "Therefore the threefold wisdom of the Brahmans, wise in the three Vedas, is called a waterless desert, their threefold wisdom is called a pathless jungle, their threefold wisdom is called destruction." (S.B.E,VoLX1. P.185.)
(c) "Of no value are the Vedas." (Silavimansa quoted in Early History of the Spread of Buddhism and the Buddhist Schools by N. Dut. P. 13.)
(d) "These Veda studies are the wise-acre's toils, The lure which tempts the victims whom he spoils. A mirage formed to catch the careless eye, But which the prudent passes safely by, The Vedas have no hidden power to save, The traitor or the coward or the knave. The Brahmans all a livelihood require, And so for their gain they made the Vedas. Full of sentences in metric forms, Learned by rote and not easily forgot. Their obscurity but tempts the foolish mind. Which swallows all 'tis told with impulses blind. Doctrines and rules, absurd, concocted, and vain, Coolly imagining wealth and power to gain,................ These greedy liars propagate deceit. And fools believe the fiction they repeat." (L. Narasu. PP. 129-30.) - BHURIDATTA JATAKA.
Shankaracharya did not give it out in his lifetime that he was a Buddhist and a reformer of Buddhism. He was one of those who were antagonistic to Buddhism and succeeded in destroying or driving it out from India. (Shankaracharya by Sita Nath Datta.)
Some more reasons we shall give later on.
WAS JESUS THE BUDDHA MAITREYA?
For sometime past some learned men of East and West have been advertising that Jesus was the Buddha Maitreya:-
(1) "Will the Buddhists ever learn that this Buddha of the future, this Maitreya, this teacher of love, and not of the law, has appeared ?" (Chips from a German Workshop. Vol. 1. PP. 452-3.) - Max Muller
(2) "The Christ Metteyyo is yet to come." (The Buddhist and the Christian Gospels. Vol. 2. P. 164.)- Edmunds,
(3) "In later day we know them as Gautama and Maitreya, Buddha and Christ." (Buddha and Christ. P. 8.) - C. Jinarajadasa.
(4) "Maitreya and Christ are one." (The Coming Christ P. 106.) - Johanna.
(5) "Lord Maitreya, on the other hand, when he appeared as the Christ, exhorted his disciples, 'Love one another as I have loved you.'" (The Coming wor1d Teacher. P. 23.) - P. Pavri
(6) "Lord Maitreya took the same course when He visited Palestine 2,000 years ago." (The Masters and the Path. P. 51.) - Leadbeater.
(7) "Blavatsky maintains that Jesus shall be Maitreya in his second advent which is yet to take place.' (Isis Unveiled. Vol. II. P. 156. Foot Note.)
We shall refute this view at length, but here only in brief:-
(1) From the study of the four Gospels we can say that Jesus in his lifetime never gave it out that he was the Buddha Maitreya.
(2) The character of Jesus does not display "TEN PERFECTIONS" We shall discuss this in details.
(3) The cardinal doctrine of Christianity is that Jesus was "betrayed" into the hands of his enemies who hanged him, and he died upon the cross. The four Gospels are unanimous on the point (Matt. 27: 27; Mark F5: 37; Lu 23: 46; John P 1: 30.). Even Jesus is made to testify to this view (Luke 23:43). The Christian world must abandon this doctrine first before the Buddhists can consider the advertised claim for being the Buddha Maitreya, for the Buddha Gautama said: -
"This, O Bhikkhus, is an impossible thing, one that cannot occur that one should deprive a Tathagata of life by violence. The Tathagatas, O Bhikkhus. are extinguished (in death) in due and natural course (Vinaya Text by Max Muller Part III. PP. 246-7.)".
The view of Blavatsky that Jesus shall be Maitreya in his second advent, is untenable. If Jesus at all returns to the world again, he cannot put forward the claim of being this Maitreya for,
(a) "The same Jesus"(Acts 1:11), "the Lord himself shall descend from heaven"(I Thes.4:16), "coming in the clouds of heaven with great power and glory."(Matt. 24: 30). Contrary to this the Buddhist prophecy demands that this Maitreya must be born on earth (THE LIFE AND TEACHINGS OF BUDDHA by A. Dharampal P. 82) and of human parents who must be different from Joseph and Mary. (M. B. J. May and June 1928. P. 280.)
(b) "Christ being raised from the dead dieth no more; death bath no more dominion over him," (Romans. 6: 9; Matt. 28: 20) whereas according to the 'Buddhist prophecy Maitreya Buddha must die in due course of time (Warren P. 485; Maitreya Samiti by Laumann Vol. 1. P. 22).
Hence neither the 'Christian nor the Buddhist scriptures support the view of Blavatsky that Jesus shall be Maitreya Buddha in his second advent. And "the scripture can not be bróken." (John. 10: 35.)
EQUIVALENTS OF MAITREYA
The person whose advent the Buddha Gautama prophesied bears different names in different languages. In Pali his name is Metteyya, in Sanskrit, Maitreya, in Burmese, "Aremideia" (THE LEGEND OF GAUDAMA by Bigandet. Vol. I. P. 11. Foot Note.), in Chinese, "Mei-ta-li-ye" (Si-Yu-Ki Vol. 1. P. XXIX), or "Milie Pusa" (BUDDHIST CHINA by Johnston P. 367.), or "Mili Fo" (Edkins P.208), or "Tzushih" (Yuan Chwang Vol. I. P. 239 by T. Watters), in Tibetan, "Byams-pa" (Pr. 'Jampa' or 'Champa' Lamaism by Waddell P.355) or "Mahitreja" (THE RELIGION OF TIBET AND THE TRUE RELIGION by Frauson P. 38), and in Japanese, "Miroku." (Reischauer PP. 264-5.)
The English equivalent of Metteyya: -
(1) "Teacher of love." - Max Muller (CHIPS FROM A GERMAN WORKSHOP. Vol. I. P. 452).
(2) "Lord of love." - A Dharampal (THE LiFE AND TEACHINGS OF BUDDHA. P.83).
(3) "He whose name is kindness" - Carus (THE GOSPEL OF BUDDHA. P. 218.).
(4)"Buddha of kindness" - Rhys Davids (BUDDHISM. P. 180).
(5)"Universal love," or "Benevolence." - L. Narasu (ESSENCE OF BUDDHISM. P. 101; 105).
(6) "Buddha of brotherly love." - Lillie (BUDDHISM IN CHRISTENDOM. P. VII).
(7) Buddha of "Friendliness." - Fausboll (SUTTA NIPATA. P. 205).
(8) "Loving and compassionate." - Monier Williams. (BUDDHISM. P. 181.)
(9) "Love or mercifulness." - S. Beal (THE CHINESE DHAMMAPADA. P. 69.)
(10) "Compassionate" or of "Family of mercy" - Getty (GODS OF NORTHERN BUDDHISM. P. 20;68).
(11) "The merciful." - Herbert Baynes (THE WAY OF BUDDHA. P. 15).
(12) "Merciful one." - Joseph Edkins (CHINESE BUDDHISM. P. 240).
(13) "Quality of a friend; friendly; benevolent; kind; love, amity, sympathy, active interest in others." - William Steade (THE PALl DICTIONARY).
RAHMAT IS THE ARABIC EQUIVALENT 0F MAITREYA. Benevolence, loving kindness, friendliness, compassion, mercy or mercifulness, all words of similar import are all expressed by the Arabic word Rahmat. The Arabic English lexicon by Edward William Lane gives some of the following equivalents of Rahmat:- "Mercy, pity, compassion, tenderness of heart; inclination requiring the exercise of favour, and beneficence; pardon and forgiveness."
Badger's English Arabic Lexicon includes "Goodness and providence".
"Ar-Rahman and Ar-Rahim are both derived from Rahmat, signifying tenderness requiring the exercise of beneficience (Raghib Imam) and thus comprising the idea of love and mercy. Ar-Rahman and Ar-Rahim are both active participle nouns of different measures. denoting intensiveness of significance, the former being of the measure fa'lan, and indicating the greatest preponderance of the quality of mercy, and the latter being of the measure fa'il and being expressive of a constant repetition and manifestation of the ahribute. (A. H.) The two words have been explained by the holy prophet himself. He is reported to have said. 'Ar-Rahman is the Beneficent God whose love and mercy are manifested in the creation of this world, and Ar-Rahim is the Merciful God whose love and mercy are manifested in the state that comes after'. (A . H.) i.e., in the consequence of the deeds of men. Thus the attribute of mercy in Ar-Rahman is manifested before man comes in existence in the creation of things that are necessary for his life here, and therefore without his having deserved them, while the same attribute in Ar-Rahim is manifested when man has done something to deserve it. Thus the former is expressive of the utmost degree of the love and generosity, the latter of unbounded and constant favour and mercy. Lexicologists agree in holding that the former includes both the believer and the unbeliever for its object, while the latter particularises more the believer. (LL. R. gh. L.A. T.A.) Hence I render Ar-Rahman as meaning the Beneficient God because the idea of doing good is predominent in it, though I must admit that the English language lacks an equivalent of Ar-Rahman even making an approach to giving expression to all comprehensive love and goodness manifested in that word......" (Mohammed Ali's translation of the Koran, Foot Note 3.)
Metteyya is from Metta. The Metta Sutta runs thus:- "As a mother at the risk of her life watches over her own child, so let every one cultivate a boundless friend (friendly) mind towards all beings." (The Maha Bodhi Society translation.)
"The Merciful......it expresses the universal atiribute of mercy which the Almighty extends to all men, the wicked and the good, believers and the un-believers. This is a noble thought." (The Muslim Doctrine of God by S.M.Zwemer D.D. PP. 35-6.)
Thus Rahmat fully expresses the significauce of the word Metteyya. Sale translates Rahmat as "Mercy." (The Koran. Chapter 2l P.326.)
MOHAMMED IS MAITREYA BUDDHA
The followers of Jesus and of Shankaracharya both advertise their respective teachers as the Buddha Maitreya. Their own teachers remained silent on the point in their life-times. Not so Mohammed. Unlike Jesus and Shankaracharya he himself published that he was sent as the Maitreya (Mercy):-
"We have not sent thee (O Mohammed) but (as) a Mercy unto-creaturcs." (The Koran 21. P.26)
Very often the prophet is called a Maitreya (Mercy) in the Koran
(1) "(Thouart sent as) a Mercy (Maitreya) from thy Lord." (Ibid. 28. P382)
(2) "There are some of them who injure the prophet and say, he is an ear: Answer, He is an ear of good unto you: he believeth in God and giveth credit to the faithful and is a mercy (Maitreya) unto such of you who bclieve. (Ibid. 9. PP. 187-8.)
A number of times in his conversation Mohammed gave out that he was sent as a Maitreya:-
(1) Narrator Ahu Saieh. "The apostle of God used to address people, 'O people, I am a Mercy (Maitreya) (who is) sent (to you.)'" (D.P. 6.)
(2) On the field, of Ohod Mohammed "was very near losing his life, being struck down by a shower of stones, and wounded in the face with arrows." (Sale's Koran Foot Note P. 60.) When in this pitiable plight and profusely bleeding some of his companions asked him to curse the unbelieving enemy, he declined their request and prayed for the unbelieving enemy:- "I have not been sent for cursing, but as an inviter (unto God) and a Mercy (Maitreya). 0 God, guide my people (and forgive them) as they know' mc not." (M.Quoted in RAHMAT-AL-LIL-ALAMINA Vol 1. p. 114 by Q Md. Sulaiman.)
"Mohammed was at all times of an affectionate disposition, and even demonstratively so" (Mohammed by S.D. Margoliouth P. 70.). "In the Koran he repeatedly points out what a privilege his presence is. and how he is a proof or embodiment of God's Mercy to the world" (Ibid. P.52).
"It is a wonderful thing," observes Mr. Holland, "that Mohammed born of a fierce and war-like race, a people given to many cruel practices, should have so much regard for compassion. He thanked God who had put in men's heart to be compassionate........of all the qualities he regarded compassion as the most God-like, and every chapter of the Koran begins with this invocation, 'In the name of God the Compassionate, the Merciful'" (The Story of Mohammad P. 100).
MEASUREMENT OF HEARTS
From the Muslim point of view all the inspired teachers of humanity, being the commissioned representatives of the most Merciful upon the earth, were all men of merciful nature. Their hearts were vast treasure houses of mercy. They were men of much more merciful nature than the uninspired. God in his wisdom chose to bestow upon them various amounts of His mercy. The Koran says -
"These are the apostles; We have preferred some of them before others." (2. P. 36)
Compared among themselves, some of the apostles were more merciful than others. We maintain that through the grace of God Mohammed had received the greatest portion of His mercy. In other words, the heart of Mohammed was the greatest treasure house of mercy, as compared with the hearts of other apostles. How to know this? We want a standard for measuring the merciful extent of hearts. Jesus gives a standard:-
"Out of the abundance of heart the mouth speaketh." (Matt. 12:34)
"The tongue" writes Rt. Rev. W. W. How D. D.. "is the truest sign of the state of the heart............The fountain within shall over-flow in the words of the mouth.........."(Commentary on the New Testament.)
In guidance of the above we suppose that if in the teachings of an inspired teacher the word "mercy" or "merciful" occurs once his heart is merciful to. one degree. With this standard we measure the merciful extent of the heart of Mohammed. The words "mercy" and "merciful" are used more than 409 times in the Koran alone.
We intentionally leave out the words occurring In the Hadis literature of more than quarter of a million of pages in which the sayings of the holy prophet are recorded. Therefore the heart of the holy prophet was merciful more than 409 degrees.
Now we measure the merciful extent of the heart of Jesus with his own standard. From the record of the four Gospels of the Bible we learn that the words "mercy" and "merciful" drop from the lips of Jesus only 9 times. Therefore his heart was merciful to 9 degrees only.
In view of the above an impartial enquirer shall consider Mohammed as the Buddha Maitreya in preference to Jesus.
The vast extent of the merciful nature of Mohammed is well expressed by the Koran:-
"Certainly an apostle has come to you from among yourselves, grievous to him is your falling into distress, excessively solicitous respecting you; to the believers (he is) compassionate-merciful." (IX.128.)
"Compassionate" is the translation of the Arabic word "Raoof" which according to Bokari (Vol. 2. P. 299) means "very great mercy." Raoof "denotes a more special and a more tender affection than Rahmet, or the utmost degree thereof."(Arabic English Lexicon by Lane.)
Shankaracharya being not an inspired teacher we leave him out of consideration.
AN INCORRUPTIBLE NAME.
When we go through the works written by men of various nations on Islam we observe one curious thing. The word "Mohammed" is spelled in a number of ways, as "Mahamet," "Mahomet," "Mohamet," "Mehemet," "Mahemmet,"..........
We utilise some of these natural differences for our purpose.
1. "Mahamet or Mahomet." The word seems to be composed of Maaha and Metta. The word Maho or Maha in Pali and Sanskrit means "Great, illustrious" (The Student's H. E. Dictionary by R. N. Lal) Metta means "mercy." Therefore the entire word Mahamet or Mahomet means "an illustrious mercy" or a great mercy". The Koran gives out that Mohammed is "a great mercy."
2. "Mohamet" seems to be composed of Moh and Metta. Moh in Sanskrit means, "Affection or sympathy";(Ibid.) therefore the entire word means "of an affectionate or of sympathetic mercy". The events of the life of Mohammed show that he was of a sympathetic nature to an extra-ordinary degree. We shall describe these events in details.
3. "Mehemet" seems to be composed of "Meh" and "Metta." Meh means "rain." (The Student's H. E. Dictionary by R. N. Lal) Therefore the entire word means ''a mercy like rain", or "a man who rains mercy in general." According to the Koran rain is a general blessing of God to His creatures:-
(a) "We send down rain as blessing from heaven, whereby We cause the gardens to spring forth and the grain of harvest, and tall palm trees having branches laden with dates, hanging one above another as a provision for man-kind, and We thereby quicken a dead country."(50.P.500.)
(b) "He sendeth down water from heaven, and quickneth thereby the earth, after it hath been dead: verily herein are signs unto people who understand." (30. P. 396.)
(c) "Dost thou not see that God sendeth down water from heaven, and causeth the same to enter (and form) sources on the earth, and produceth thereby corn of various sorts."(39. P. 451.)
Just as rain is a general blessing and mercy of God to all His creatures so the holy prophet was a mercy to all His creatures: the Koran supports this "We have not sent thee (O Mohammed) but (as) a mercy-unto-all-creatures." (21 P.326)
4. 'Mahemmet" seems to be composed of "Mahema" or "Mahima" which in Sanskrit means "greatness; glory," (The Studenti H. E. Dictionary by R. N. Lal.) and Metta which means "mercy." Therefore the entire word means "the glorious mercy" or a great mercy."
ESOTERIC AND EXOTERIC DOCTRINE AND THE BUDDHAS
"I have preached the truth without making any distinction between exoteric and esoteric doctrine: for in respect of truths, Ananda, the Tathagata has no such thing as the closed fist of a teacher, who keeps something back." (S. B. E. Vol. XI. P. 36.)
If Jesus was the Buddha Maitreya the characteristic mentioned above should hold good in his case, but it does not:-
"And the disciples came and said unto him, Why speakest thou unto them in parables? He answered and said unto them, Because it is given unto you to know the mysteries of the kingdom of heaven, but to them it not given............Therefore I speak to them in parables: because they seeing see not; and hearing they hear not, neither do they understand."(Matt. 13: 10-13.)
"Plainly our Lord desired that the bulk of his hearers should not understand the mysteries of his kingdomn." (Four Gospels by W. W. How D. D.)
Jesus was put before the high priest as an accused. He questioned Jesus about his doctrine : -
"Jesus answered him, I spake openly to the world; I ever taught in the synagogue and in the temple, whither the Jews always resort; and in secret have I said nothing." (John 28 : 20)
Let us see what Jesus taught in secret:-
"And when he was alone, they that were about him with the twelve asked of him the parable. And he said unto these, Unto you it is given to know the mystery of the kingdom of God, but unto them that are without all these things are done in parables; that seeing they may see, and not perceive, and hearing they may hear, and not understand; lest at any time they may be converted, and their sins should be forgiven them." (Mark 4 :10-12)
Jesus commanded his disciples not to make his secret doctrine public:-
"Give not that which is holy unto the dogs, neither cast ye your pearls before swine, lest they trample them under their feet, and turn again and rend you." (Matt. 7:6)
In public Jesus always spoke in parables:-
"And with many such parables spake he the word unto them. But without a parable spake he not unto them: and when they were alone, he expounded all things unto his discipIes." (Mark 4 : 33-34)
Thus from the above it is clear that Jesus deliberately made a distinction between the exoteric and esoteric doctrine. In respect of truth he intentionally had a closed fist of a teacher for the majority of his audience. He consciously withheld his real teaching from the bulk of his hearers, whether worthy or unworthy.
The student of the Bible well knows that the ancient Christians had a number of secret Gospels, Acts and Epistles. Fragments of some of these are still found.
"An apocryphal book was-originally-too sacred and secret to be in every ones hand." (Apocryphal New Testament by M. R. James P. XIV.)
The existence of scriptures, other than Canonical ones, is clearly hinted in Luke:-
"For as much as many have taken in hand a declaration of those things which are most surely believed amongst us..............." (Luke 1:1)
"'Many'. This does not refer to the Gospels of St. Matthew and Saint Mark......" (W. W. How D. D. The Four Gospels.)
It is therefore apparent from the above that Jesus cannot be the Buddha Maitreya. Shankaracharya not being an inspired teacher we leave him out of question.
On the other hand, Mohammed in obedience to the command of God, published his doctrine completely, without making any distinction between exoteric and esoteric:-
"O apostle, publish (the whole of) that which hath been sent down unto thee from thy Lord: for if thou do not, thou dost not (in effect) publish any part Thereof." (The Koran V. P. 109.)
The Koran was recited in public in the days of the prophet. It is recited in the same way even now. The prophet had strictly forbidden Muslims from hiding his doctrine: -
1. "Abu Hurera relates that the apostle of God said: Whosoever is asked anything concerning knowledge and if he does not tell, he shalt be bridled with the bridle of fire (on the day of resurrection.)" (Ta. Vol. IV. P. 248, quotes A and T.)
2. "Abu Hurera relates :-The apostle of God said, 'None is such that he learnt knowledge and hid it, but shall come on the day of resurrection bridled with the bridle of hell-fire" (1. Vol. 1. P. 117.)
3. "Anas relates: I heard the apostle of God saying. 'If a man is questioned about knowledge and if he hides it he will be bridled with the bridle of fire.'" (Ibid P. 118.)
4. "Abu Hurera relates :-The apostle of God said, 'If a man is questioned about knowledge that he knows, and if he hides it, he shall be bridled with the bridle of fire.'" (Ibid.)
It is clear, therefore, that Mohammed is the Buddha Maitreya and not Jesus.
DEVOTED SERVITORS OF THE BUDDHAS.
"Then the Blessed one addressed the brethren, and said, 'Whosoever, brethren, have been Arahat-Buddhas through the long ages of the past, there were servitors just as devoted to those Blessed ones as Ananda has been to me. And whosoever, brethren, shall be the Arahat-Buddhas of the future, there shall be servitors as devoted to those Blessed ones as Ananda has been to me.'" (S. B. E. Vol. XI. R 97.)
"And Ananda remained always near the Blessed Master of truth, Until the Tathagata made his final entry into Nirvana." (The Gospel of Buddha by Carus P. 69.)
Ananda was really devoted to the Buddha Gautama. His true devotion distinguishes him from other disciples. Once when a maddened elephant approached the Buddha Gautama "the Bhikshus all deserted him, Ananda only remained by his side." (S. B. E. Vol. 19, P. 247.)
If Jesus was the Buddha Maitreya he should have a servitor like Ananda. We search for such a servitor of Jesus in the Gospels:-
We consider Judas Iscariot was this servitor of Jesus, for "Judas was with our saviour in public and private,"(Eadie P. 392) "and had the bag and bare what was put therein."(John 12 6) Judas Iscariot, however, was wanting in devotion towards his master:-
"Then one of the twelve, called Judas Iscariot, went unto the chief priests, and said unto them, What will ye give me, I will deliver him unto you? And they covenanted with him for 30 pieces of silver. And from that time he sought opportunity to betray him." (Matt.26: 14-16)
And Judas betrayed Jesus.(Matt. 28: 50.) Therefore Judas capnot be the true servitor of Jesus. Perhaps Peter was this servitor of Jesus. Jesus, in his life time, entertained a good opinion of Peter:-
"And Jesus answered and said unto hum Blessed art thou Simon Barjona........I say unto thee, That thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build my church and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it. And I will give unto thee keys of the kingdom of heaven; and whatsoever thou shalt bind on earth shall be bound in heaven and whatsoever thou shalt loose in earth shall be loosed in heaven." (Matt. 16 :17-19)
Peter himself expressed that his devotion towards Jesus was sincere:-
(a) "I will lay down my life for thy sake." (John 13: 37)
(b) "Peter answered and said unto him, Though sll men shall be offended because of thee, yet will I never be offended. Peter said unto him. Though I should die with thee, yet Will 1 not deny thee LIKEWISE ALSO SAID ALL THE DISCIPLES." (Matt. -28. 3.3-35.)
(c)Peter said to Jesus : - "Lord I am ready to go with thee, both in prison and to death."(Luke22:33)
(d) "But he spake the more vehemently, If I should die with thee, I will not deny thee in any wise. LIKEWISE ALSO SAID THEY ALL." (Markl4:31)
A time for the true test of devotion soon arrives, and the disciples of Jesus fail one and all. Jesus is captured by the enemy and the disciples desert him:- "ALL THE DISCIPLES FORSOOK HIM AND FLED."(Matt. 26 56)
Peter, the rock of Jesus, proves an utter failure. He deserts Jesus, trembles even at the questioning of a damsel, the gates of hell prevail against him in the very lifetime of Jesus and he denies Jesus repeatedly and most emphatically:-
"Now Peter sat without in the place: and a damsel came unto him, saying, Thou wast also with Jesus of Galilee. But he denied before them all, saying, I know not what thou sayest. And when he was gone out into the porch, another maid saw him, and said unto them that were there, This fellow was also with Jesus of Nazareth. And again he denied with an oath, I do not know the man. After a while came unto him they that stood by and said to Peter, Surely thou also art one of them; for thy speech hetrayeth thee. Then he began to curse and to swear, saying, I know not the man............." (Matt. 26 69-74)
It is therefore apparent that in the life-time of Jesus none of his disciples showed the constant devotion of Ananda towards their master. Hence Jesus cannot be the Buddha Maitreya.
Mohammed had a servitor named Anas who never left the service of the prophet in his lifetime. Anas was presented to the prophet by his parents:-
"Anas relates: The apostle of God came to our house........my mother said to him, '0 apostle of God, here is your little servant.'" (M. Vol. IL P. 719.)
"'I served him from the time I was 8 years old,' said his servant Anas, 'and he never scolded me for any thing. though things were spoiled by me.'"(Irving p. 232)
The prophet loved Anas and called him his son,(T. Vol. II. P. 247) and his "little beloved."(M. Vol. VI. P. 2330) Anas was devoted to the prophet like Ananda. The prophet himself, like the Buddha Gautama, bore testimony to this effect by calling Anas, "Onais."(T. Vol. I. P. 449)
The word Onais means the devoted young one. The word Anas itself is from the root Ons which means devotion. Anas was really the incarnation of true devotion. He stuck to the prophet in station and out station, in peace and in war, in safety as well as in danger, upto the end of the life of the prophet. We point out only two events of the life of Anas showing his undaunted devotion to the prophet:-
(1) Anas when only about 11 years old, was near the person of the prophet at the battle of Ohod (Ta. Vol. IV. P. 290. M. & T. quoted) where the prophet "was very near loosing his life, being struck down by a shower of stones, and wounded in the face by two arrows," (Sale's Koran P. 60. Foot Note) and he depicts the scene of the spot vividly.
(2) Anas was near the person of the prophet at the battle of Honain, and gives a graphic account of it. In the Muslim army there were mostly recent converts and ido1aters (Rahmat-lil-alimina Vol. I. P. 162), unprotected by coats of mail and "unarmed," (M. Vol. V. P. 1898.) and they got panic-stricken at the fury of sudden and unexpected onslaught of the enemy, and fled in disorder. "They were assailed by a shower of darts, stones and arrows, which left two or three of Mahomet's soldiers dead at his feet, and wounded several others."(Irving P. 182) "The enemy then surrounded the apostle of God"(M. Vol. V. PP. 1899-2000.) who was left "alone" (Ta. Vol. V. P. 61 B. M. T. quoted) "with some few of his family."(Sale's Koran P. 183 Foot Note.) The enemy, the tribe of Hawazin were archers and they shot volleys of arrows (as thick as) the swarm of locusts."(M. Vol. V. P. 1898) The Muslim army "had to face such archers none of whose arrows missed."(Ibid P. 1891) The presence of Anas, a lad of about 16 years, near the person of the prophet, is a sure proof of his admirable devotion towards Mohammed and undoubtedly stands a decent parallel to Ananda's devotion towards the Buddha Gautaina when the maddened elephant approached him.
Therefore it is clear that Mohammed is the Buddha Maitreya and not Jesus; Shankaracharya not being an inspired teacher we leave him out of consideration.
"And the Tathagata's body appeared like a flame, and he was beautiful above all expression.
"And venerable Ananda said to the blessed one: 'How wonderful thing is it, Lord, and how marvellous that the colour of the skin of the blessed one should be so clear, so exceedingly bright! When I placed this robe of burnished cloth of gold on the body of the blessed one, lo! it seemed as if it had lost its splendour!'"
"The blessed one said, 'There are two occasions on which a Tathagata's appearance becomes clear and exceedingly bright. In the night, Ananda, in which a Tathagata attains to the supreme and perfect insight, and in the night iiii which he passes finally a'way in that utter passing which leaves nothing whatever of his earthly existence to remain.'" (The Gospel of Buddha by Carus P. 214)
From the above quoted words of the Buddha Gautama we have the following 6 criteria for indentifying a Buddha:-
(1) A Buddha attains to supreme and perfect insight at night time.
(2) On the occasion of his complete enlightenment he looks exceedingly bright.
(3) A Buddha dies a natural death.
(4) He dies at night time.
(5) He looks exceedingly bright before his death.
(6) After his death a Buddha ceases to exist on earth.
If Jesus was the Buddha Maitreya these six criteria should hold good in his case.
(1) Jesus attained to supreme insight after being baptised of John the Baptist -"And Jesus, when he was baptised, went up straightway out of water: and, lo, the heavens were opened unto him, and he saw the spirit of God descending like a dove, and lighting upon him, and lo a voice from heaven, saying, This is my beloved son, in whom I am well pleased."(Matt. 3 :16-7) This was "day" time(John 1:29) and not night time. Therefore Jesus cannot be the Buddha Maitreya.
(2) There is no record in the gospels to show that us looked exceedingly bright at the time of his baptism. The gospel version of his life again fails to support him.
(3) According to the gospels Jesus did not die a natural death but was deprived of his life by his enemies in the prime of life. This is impossible according to the Buddha's words:-"This, O Bhikkhus, this is an impossible thing, one that cannot occur that one should deprive a Tathagata of life by violence. The Tathagatas, O Bhikkhus, are extinguished (in death) in due and natural course.........." (Vinaya Text Part Ill, by Max Muller PP. 246-7)
Thus the Christian and the Buddhist scriptures both do not permit us to consider the advertised claim of Jesus for the Buddhahood in question.
(4) According to the gospels Jesus was killed not at night time but at day time:- "It was the third hour that they crucified him, (Mark 15:25) 'that is, 9 o'clock in the morning. Thus the whole cruciflxion occupied 6 hours, as our Lord died at 3 o'clock,' 'the Jews reckoning the hours from 6 in the morning." (The Four Gospels by Right Rev. W. W. How. D. D.)
Thus the version of the crucifixion story of the gospels again stands in the way of Jeeus if we want to consider his claim for the Buddhahood in question.
(5) The four gospels very clearly and minutely depict the scenes of the night preceding the crucifixion day of Jesus. There is no mention that Jesus. looked "exceedingly bright" and "beautiful above expression in this night. Thus the gospels again fail to support the claim of Jesus for 'the Buddhahood. in question.
(6) It is a settled doctrine of Christians that Jesus rose from the dead on the third day after his death on the cross. The four gospels are unanimous on the point.(Matt. 28: 6; Mark 16 : 6, Luke 24: 6; John 20: 9) According to the gospels his resurrection was no vision (Luke 24: 39) but a reality. They touched him (Matt, 28 : 9) He dined with them. (Luke 24: 30: John 21: 12) Jesus "shewed himself alive after his passion by many infalliable proofs, being seen of them for forty days and speaking of the things pertaining to the kingdom of God";(Acts, 1: 3) "he rose again the third day and he was seen of Cephas, then one of the twelve: after that he was seen of above five hundred brethren at once, of whom the greater part remain unto this present, but some are fallen asleep; after that he was seen of James, then of all the disciples. And last of all he was seen of me also." (1 Cor. 18 : 4.6)
There is another settled doctrine of Christians that the very same Jesus is again coming upon earth. It is based on the following words of Jesus.
(1) "A little while, and ye shall not see me': and again, a little while, and ye shall see me.(John. 16:16)
(2) "But I will see you again, and your heart shall rejoice." (John.16:22)
(3) "I will not leave you comfortless: I will come to you." (John. 14:18)
(4) "I will come again, and receive you unto myself." (Jonn. 14: 3)
(5) "I said unto you, I go away, and come again umnto you." (John. 14: 28)
(6) "The son of man shall come in the glory of his Father with his angels." (Matt. 16: 27)
(7) "They shall see the son of man coming in the clouds of heaven with power and great glory." (Matt. 24: 30)
According to the Buddhist scriptures quoted above the Buddhas are extinguished in death. They do not remain on earth after their death. If the Christian world wants a Buddhist to consider the claim of Jesus as the Buddha Maitreya, they should deny the story of the resurrection of Jesus after his death on the cross, and also the doctrine of his second advent upon earth. Therefore Jesus cannot be the Buddha Maitreya.
The six criteria do not hold in the case of Shankaracharya as in the case of Jesus, but they hold remarkably in the case of Mohammed:-
1. Mohammed attained to supreme insight at night time. We quote the Koran
(a) "By the perspicuous book (of the Koran); verily We have sent down the same on a blessed night." (XLIV. P. 478)
(b) "Verily We sent down (the Koran) in the night of Alkadra." (XCVII: P. 586.)
"On this night Mohammed received his first revelation." (Sale's Translation of the Koran; P. 586 Foot Note.)
"Alkadra signifies, power, and honour, or dignity and also the Divine decree." (Ibid.)
"Lailat-ul-qadra literally means the night of majesty or grandeur or greatness...it is called the blessed night." (Mohammed AU's Translation of the Koran. FootNote. 2777)
According to Badger's English Arabic Lexicon "Grand," "Glorious," and "Beautiful" are synonyms. Therefore Lailat-ul-Qadra expresses the idea of the night of glory or brightness.
2. Mohammed was "the brightest face;" "it was as though the sun-light beamed in his countenance."(The Life of Mohammad by Muir, p. 510.) "There was a glow or radiance in his countenance," "the supernatural light of prophecy." (Irving P. 230) The couplet of Abu Beker, the first Caliph, aptly describes him:-
"As there is no darkness in the moonlit night, So is Mustafa, the well-wisher, the bright." (The Ideal Prophet by Kamal-ud-din P. XXXIV.)
"Monzir-bin-Jareer relates: 'I saw the face of the apostle of God, it was shining like gold..........'" (M. Vol. III P. 35.)
"Abe Is-hak relates: 'A man asked Bara, Was the face of the apostle of God shining as a sword?; he replied, 'Nay (but) like the moon.'" (T. Vol.. ii. p. 552)
In fact the prophet was the brightest of the bright, and we see no exaggeration in the words of Thu Abbas who said.
"The prophet never sat opposite the sun or a light, without outshining them by his own light." (Koelle P. 377)
Well the Buddhist scripture says:-
"The Sun is bright by day, the moon shines by night, the warrior is bright in his armour; thinkers are bright in their meditation; but among all the brightest with the splendour of day and night is Buddha the Awakened, the Holy, the Blessed." (The Gospel of Buddha by Carus, P. 117. Dhamrnapada quoted.)
No wonder if Mohammed looked "exceedingly bright" and "beautiful above expression in the night of Alkadra when the Divine light burst upon him in a flood:-
'It was the fortieth year of his age when the famous revelation took place. Accounts are given of it by Muslim writers as if received from his own lips, and it is alluded in a certain part of the Koran. It was on the night called by Arabs Alkader............a flood of light broke upon him of............intolerable spIendour.......Mahomet instantly felt his under standing illumined with celestial light." (Irving PP. 36-7)
3. Mohammed died a natural death unlike Jesus.
4. According to the version of Aisha Mohammed died at night time. When he was expiring 'there was no oil in the lamp,"(Maulud by Ghulam Imam Shahid P. 63.) "and his wife had to borrow oil for the lamp." (Mohammed, Buddha, arid Christ by M. Pods D. P. P. 94.)
5. Mohammed looked "exceedingly bright" and "beautiful above expression" in the night of his death. Anas son of Malik was the servitor of the prophet just as Ananda was to the Buddha Gautama. This Ananda of the Buddha Maitreya Mohammed relates:-
"Abu Beker used to conduct prayer during the illness in which the apostle of God died. When it was Monday and people were standing in rows in prayer, he lifted up the curtain of his room and looked towards us while standing, his face being a page of the book (of the Koran), and he smiled as he found people firm in religion and constant in prayer. We got maddened (for joy) even during the prayer in the expectation that he intended to come out. And Abu Beker fell back in order to join the rank, with the idea that the apostle of God was coming out for prayer. In the meanwhile he made a token with his hand for completing the prayer, he then got inside the room and dropped the curtain, and he died the same day.(M.Vol. 2PP. 661.2.)
Comparing the face of a man with "a page of the book of the Koran" is an Arab way of expressing the brightness, beauty, and glory of the person. The Koran is called "glorious".(The Koran L. P.499: LXXXV. P. 578) Another report of Anas makes the matter clear:-
"The apostle of God did not come out for three days. Abu Beker advanced to conduct the prayer. In the meantime the apostle of God lifted up the curtain. When his face was unveiled it appeared to us so very beautiful that throughout our lives we never saw a thing so very beautiful. He made a sign with his hand to Abu Beker to advance (for conducting the prayer of the congregation) and he dropped the curtain. Ever afterwards we did not see him." (M. Vol. II. P. 502.)
6. After his burial, Mohammed, in his bodily form, was never seen of any one upon the earth. Therefore Mohammed is the Buddha Maitreya and not Jesus or Shankaracharya.
THE PERSONAL BEAUTY OF MAITREYA
(1) "His (Maitreya's) body shall be of pure gold, bright, glistening and pure." (Si-Yu-Ki. Vol. II. pp. 46-7.)
(2) "Asanga answered, 'That is settled; but with, respect to Maitreya. what is his appearance......?' He said, 'No words can describe the marks and signs, (the personal) beauty of Maitreya..........'" (Ibid. Vol. I. P. 229.)
(3) "No words can describe the personal beauty of Maitreya." Buddhism by Monier William P. 82.)
In the eyes of the white Christian dweller of Europe the Jew is "swarthy". Jesus was himself a Jew of the Jews, and unless he was an exception, he too must have possessed the characteristic swarthy colour of his race. In the person of Jesus "the Jews could find no form or comeliness." (The Holy Bible Commentary by Thomas Scott. Vol. V Foot Note on Chapter LIII of Isaiah.) The ancient Christian Fathers considered that Jesus had no beauty of person:-
"Justin Martyr. Clemens Alexandrinus, Tertttllian, and others of the ancient fathers, concluded our savior's person to have been deformed." (Comprehensive Commentary on the Holy Bible by Rev. W. Jenks D. D. and Rev. Joseph A. Warne A. M. Psalms- Malachi. P. 457 Foot Note.)
There is no evidence in the gospels to show thai Jesus had an uncommon beauty of person. Hence Jesus cannot be the Buddha Maitreya. Shankaracharya too, did not possess an extraordinary beauty of person.
Mohammed possessed a very beautiful and lovely person. "In the dicta which are ascribed to him he (prophet) declared himself to be the best in charachter and the most perfect in beauty among mankind," (Mohammed by S. D. Margoliouth P. 82.)
"Mottalib-bin-Abu Vidaah relates -
the apostle of God said, '................(God)..... made me........the best.....'" (T. Vol. II. P. 543.)
Mohammed was a unique assemblage of graces, and he is described as possessing an extraordinary beauty of person by his contemporaries:-
(1) "Anas relates:- 'The apostle of God was the most beautiful of all people (T. Vol. 1. P. 529.)
(2) "Jabir-bin-Samorah relates :-'I saw the apostle of God in the moon-light, so I began to look towards him and the moon (for comparing), he was wearing a red suit: I came to the conclusion that my opinion he was more beautiful than the moon." (Ibid. Vol. II. B. 281.)
(3) "Kaab-bin-Malik relates :-'.........I came the apostle of God and saw him sitting in the mosque, and round him were Muslims, and he was shining like the splendour of the moon........'" (Ibid. IL 374.)
(4) "Bara relates :-'I never saw a man, having locks and wearing a red suit, more beautiful than the apostle of God. His locks were flowing down his shoulders. His breast was broad. He was neither very stunted nor very tall." (T. Vol. II B. P. 551)
(5) "Ali relates:-'.......I never saw a man like him (the prophet) among those who were before or after him.'" (Ta. Vol. VI. P. 99.)
(6) ".........Jabir-bin-Abdullah relates:-'....like him (the prophet) there was none among those who were before or after him.'" (B. Vol. III. P. 117.)
(7) "Abu Hurera relates :- The apostle of God was.............a beautiful person, so very beautiful a man I never saw among those who were before or after him.'" (Ibid.)
(8) "Jabir-bin-Samorah relates :-'I said the afternoon prayer with the apostle of God when he walked out to go home; I too went with him; in the way were seen some children; he touched the cheeks of every child, and mine too; I felt a coolness and scent in his hand as if it was just being drawn out from a casket of a perfumer.'" (M. Vol. VI. PP. 2338-9.)
(9) "Anas relates :- 'I never smelt amber or musk or any other scent sweeter than the smell of the body of the apostle of God: I never touched silk or any thing softer than the body of the apostle of God.' (M. Vol. VI. P. 2339.)
(10) "Anas relates:- 'The apostle of God was white and shining and his perspiration was (white) like pearls; when he would walk, he would do so inclining with force onward (or leaning this side and that side.)'" (Ibid P. 2339.)
(11) "Anas-bin-Malik relates :-'The apostle of God came to my house and slept; he perspired very much. My mother brought a phial and collected the perspiration, rubbing it down (from the leather pillow.) This awoke him and he said, O Omme Solaim, what are you at? She said: It is your sweat that we mix with scent: it is in itself the best scent.'"(Ibid P. 2339.)
(12) "Bara-bifl-Azib relates:- 'The apostle of God was of middle size and the distance between. his two shoulders was great." (Ibid P. 2342)
(13) "Bara relates :-'The face of the apostle of God was the most beautiful of all and his manners were the best. He was neither too tall nor too stunted'" (Ibid.)
(14) "Abu-Tofail relates:- 'He (prophet) was of a bright whitc colour.'" (Ibid 2343.)
(15) "Anas relates :-'His (prophet's) colour was neither perfectly white nor wheatlike.'" (Ibid.)
(16) "Anas son of Malik relates:- 'Thc apostle of God was neither too tall nor too dwarfish, neither too white like lime nor too wheaten in colour, his fair neither too curly nor too straight,.....,in his head and beard there were not even twenty white hair at the time of his death.'" (Mauta P. 422.)
(17) "Monzir-bin-Jareer relates :-'I saw the face of the apostle of God, IT WAS SHINING LIKE GOLD..............'" (M. Vol. lIT. P. 35.)
(18) "Abu Hurera relates :-'Once the apostle of God was siting with his companions when a dweller of the desert came and asked: Who is the son of Abdul Mottalib? It was replied: This man of white and red colour who is sitting..............'" (N. Vol. I. P. 491.)
(19) "Abu Hojaifa relates :-'Once the apostle of God went to bath and then he made ablution and offered two prostrations of prayer at the decline of the Sun.......People began to rub his hand on their faces. I too put his hand on my face and I found it cooler than ice and more sweet smelling than musk.'" (B. Vol. II. P. 130)
(20) "They affirmed that a marvellous fragrance which, according to the evidence of his wives and daughters, emanated from his person during life, still continued after his death." (Irving. P. 227.)
(21) "Ibrahim relates :-'During the night time the apostle of Cod could be identified by the sweet scent (of his body).' " (D. P. 23.)
(22) "Jabir relates :-'If the apostle of God would go one way, and if a way-farer would go the same way, he (the way-farer) could find out which way the (prophet) had gone, by the sweet scent of his (body), (or, the narrator said), by the sweet scent of his perspiration."' (D. P. 23)
(23) "A ruler (of the tribe) of Bani Harish relates :-'When the apostle of God stoned Maiz-bin-Malik I was present (on the scene) with my father. When the stones were rained on him (Maiz) I got terror stricken. On this the apostle of God hugged me to his breast, and his musk like (sweet-smelling) perspiration began to flow over me.'" (Ibid)
(24) "Abu Obaida-bin-Mohammed relates :-'O child, if thou hadst seen the apostle of God thou wouldst have thought (him to be like) the risen sun.'" (Ibid)
(25) "Son of Abbas relates :-'Between the two teeth of the apostle of God was (some) space. When he would talk light seemed to emanate from between his teeth.'" (Ibid)
(26) "Son of Omar relates :-'I never saw a man braver, more charitable, more valiant, more beautiful, and more decent than the apostle of God.'" (D. P. 23.)
(27) "Abu Hurera relates:- 'I never saw any one more beautiful than the apostle of God.'" (Ta.Vol. VI. P. 101.)
"Mohammed was distinguished by the beauty of his person, an outward gift which is seldom despised except by those to whom it has been refused." (An Apology for Mohammed and the Koran by Davenport PP. 11-12. Gibbon quoted.) Mohammed being the "handsomest"(The Life of Mohammed by Muir P. 510.) the comeliest, and the loveliest person, it is clear that he was the Buddha Maitreya, and not Jesus or Shankaracharya.
THE VOICE OF MAITREYA
"Asanga answered, '.........The exquisite voice of the Bodhisattva (Maitreya) is soft and pure and refined; those who hear can never tire: those who listen are never satiated.'" (Si-Yu-Ki Vol. I. P. 229.)
If Jesus was the Buddha Maitreya he should possess such an exquisite voice. There is no evidence in the gospels to show that Jesus had a voice soft, pure, and refined. Hence Jesus cannot be the Buddha Maitreya. Shankaracharya too did not possess such a voice.
Mohammed had such a voice. His contemporaries bore witness to this effect
1. "Bara relates :-'I heard the apostle of God reciting (the chapter) The Fig and Olive, during the night (prayer), and I never saw a man more sweet-voiced or better reciter than he.'" (B. Vol. I. P. 107.)
2. "Abu Hurera relates :-'The apostle of God said, God listens to nothing with so much love as He listens to the prophet of sweet voice who reads the Koran with a sonorous voice.'" (M. Vol. 11. P. 816)
3. "Aisha relates :- 'The apostle of God would talk in such a manner that a counter if he liked, could count (his) words.'" (B. Vol. II. P. 131.)
4. "Aisha relates :-'The apostle of God would not talk hastily as you do, but would speak such a decisive and clear speech that a man sitting close by could learn it by heart.'" (T. Vol. II. P. 553)
5. "Anas son of Malik relates :-'The apostle of God was not a sayer of evil words, or a talker of indecencies, or a curser.'" (B. Vol. 1.11. P. 129)
6. "Aisha relates:-'..........he (the prophet) said to me, O Aisha, have you ever seen me talking in an unpolite manner? Assuredly, of all men lowest in the rank in the eyes of God, shall be the man whose company people avoid on account of the fear of the evil of his tongue and abuses.'" (Ta. Vol. VI. P. 209. B. and M. quoted.)
7. "Abdallah son of Amr relates :- 'The apostle of God had not the habit of talking in an ungentlemanly manner, and neither he spoke indecent words intentionally, and he used to say, I am the best in manners among you.' " (B. Vol. II. P. 131)
8. "Ibn Abbas relates:-'....... Zemad said, This man (the prophet) has reached the bottom of the ocean of eloquence.'" (M. Vol. II. P. 874)
The prophet was under Divine command in using a polite language throughout his whole career:-
"Invite men unto the way of thy Lord, by wisdom and mild exhortation; and dispute with them in the most condescending manner." (The Koran XVI. P. 270.)
"His ordinary discourse was grave and sententious, abounding with those aphorisms and apologues so popular among the Arabs; at times he was excited and eloquent, and his eloquence was aided by a voice musical and sonorous" (Irving. P. 231). There is evidence in the Koran that the prophet was under Divine command to recite the Koran with a pure and sonorous voice:-
"And repeat the Koran with a distinct sonorous voice." (LXXIII P. 557)
"Voice" is sometimes synonymous with "language." There is no evidence in the gospels to show that Jesus ever wrote his teachings. Of his teachings what is available to us are not the very words of Jesus, but what a sect of Christians considered to be the teachings of the master (Luke 1:1-4). That too is a very small fraction of what Jesus taught and did (John 21:25; Luke. 1: 1-4). And this too is not available in the language that Jesus spoke "St. Matthew wrote his gospel in Hebrew." (The Four Gospels by W.W.How.D.D.). Scholars know that Hebrew was not the language spoken by Jews in the time of Jesus. However, "the original Hebrew Gospel was lost in early times."(Ibid.) "St. Mark wrote his gospel in Greek,"(Ibid) "St. Luke wrote his gospel in Greek,"(Ibid) and St. John's gospel was written in Greek."(Ibid). There is no evidence in the gospels that Jesus taught in Greek. Therefore it is not possible; to pass judgment on the purity and refineness of the language used by Jesus.
Shankaracharya wrote his works in Sanskrit. What he taught must have been in the language spoken. by the people of India at that time, and is lost for ever. Certainly Sanskrit was not the spoken language of the people of India at that time.
Mohammed on the other hand, spoke Arabic, and taught in Arabic which was the language of the people at that time. He got his teachings recorded in his life-time in Arabic. The Koran claims that it was revealed in perspicuous Arabic:-
1. "This wherein the Koran is written is the perspicuous Arabic tongue." (XVI. P. 267)
2. "Thus have We sent down (this book, being) a Koran in the Arabic tongue." (XX P.313.)
3. "This is a revelation from the most Merciful, a book the verses whereof are distinctly explained, an Arabic Koran." (XLI. P. 463.)
4. "H. M. By the perspicuous book; verily We have ordained the same an Arabic Koran, that ye may understand; it (is) certainly (written) in the original book, (kept) with Us, (being) sublime and full of wis-dom." (XLIII. P. 473.)
5. "Whereas the book of Moses (was revealed) before (the Koran, to be) a guide and a mercy; and this (is) a book confirming (the same, delivered) in the Arabic tongue; to denounce threats unto those who act unjustly, and to bear good tidings unto the righteous doers." (XLVI. P. 485.)
From the above passages it is clear that the koran was delivered in Arabic. The word Arabic means "pure and refined":-
1. The word Arabic is connected with "Araba. He spoke without incorrectness. A-rabun, signifies, committing no error in speech, (K, T, A:) and expressing the meanings clearly, plainly distinctly or perspicuously, by words." (Arabic English Lexicon by Lane Book I. P. 1902.)
2. "Katadah says that the tribe of Kuresh used to cull or select what was most excellent in the dialects of the Arabs, so that their dialect became the most excellent of all and the Kuran was therefore revealed in that dialect." (Ibid P. 1994.)
The Koran distinctly gives out that it was not delivered in an unnamed or barbarous tongue:-
1. "We (also) know that they say, verily, a (certain) man teacheth him (to compose the Koran.) The tongue of (the person) unto whom they incline, is a foreign (tongue) but this, (wherein the Koran is written) is the perspicuous Arabic tongue." (XVI. P. 267.)
2 "If we had revealed (the Koran) in a foreign language, they had surely said, Unless the signs thereof be distinctly explained, (we will not receive the same:) (is the book written in) a foreign tongue, and (the person unto whom it is directed) an Arabian?" (XLI. P. 467.)
The word "foreign" is the translation of the word "Ajami". "The word Ajami which is here used signifies any foreign or barbarous language in general" (Sale's Translation of the Koran P. 268 Foot Note). The word Ajami is connected with "Ajamatun" which signifies "he had an impotence or impediment, or a difficulty in his speech, or utterance........a want of clearness, perspicuousness, distinctness, chasteness..........therein (Msb)." (Arabic English Lexicon by Lane. Book I. P. 1966.)
The word in the original for Arabic is "Urbean" (XLIII.3.) which is nothing but "Urbane" which means "courteous; civil; polite." The word Arabic is from "Al-arab" which signifies "the inhabitants of the cities, or large towns, (S.A.O.K.)." (The Arabic English Lexicon by Lane. Book I. P. 1993)
The language of the Koran is easy, without any crookedness, and is perspicuous. The Koran itself gives this out:-
(a) "Verily We have rendered the Koran easy for thy tongue." (XIX P. 304.)
(b) "These are the signs of the perspicuous book." (XII. P. 324.)
(c) 1. "Praise be unto God who hath sent down' unto His servant the book (of the Koran), and hath not inserted therein any crookedness." (XVIII. P. 244.)
2. "An Arabic Koran; wherein there is no crookedness." (XXXIX. P. 451)
The Koran very clearly gives out what is required by the words of Asanga is all fulfilled in the book:-
"Verily (the Koran) is an admonition and he who is willing retaineth the same (written) on. volumes, honourable exalted and pure." (LXXX. P. 570.)
It is worth pointing out that the word Koran signifies "no more than a reading or a recitation." (Sale's Translation of the Koran P. 224. Foot Note 12)
Now we turn to the other point mentioned in the words of Asanga. There is evidence in the Koran that those who heard the prophet reciting the Koran were charmed to an extraordinary degree. This led the unbelievers to declare it a piece of sorcery.
"The unbelievers say, This is manifest sorcery." (X. P. 199.) It is a fact that those who heard 'the prophet reciting the Koran were never satiated. The Muslim world still feels delighted and unsatiated whenever the Koran is properly recited. It is a significant fact that of the scriptures of the world it is the Koran alone, the very original Koran, that is recited by the largest number of human beings. No scripture in the original as recited by such a large number of human beings as the Koran. The Muslims and, the unbelievers both were aware that the reading of the Koran by the prophet delighted people very much. The unbelievers had a reason of their own to explain this, for according to them the Koran was a poetical composition and the prophet was a poet. The Koran denies this
"We have not taught (Mohammed) the art of poetry, nor is it expedient for him (to be a poet). This book is no other than an admonition (from God) and a perspicuous Koran, that he may warn him who is living. (XXVI, P. 35.)
We now quote a few opinions of some of the eminent scholars about the beauty and refinement of the language used in the Koran, and the style of the delivery of the prophet:-
1. "The Koran is universally allowed to be written with the utmost elegance and purity of language, in the dialect of the tribe of Koreish, the most noble and polite of Arabians, but with some mixture, though very rarely, of other dialects. It is confessedly the standard of the Arabic tongue, and as the more orthodox believe, and are taught by the book itself, inimitable by any human pen........and therefore insisted on as a permanent miracle, greater than the raising of the dead, and alone sufficient to convince the world of its Divine original.
"And to this miracle did Mohammed appeal for the confirmation of his mission, publicly challenging the most eloquent men in Arabia, which was at that time stocked with thousands whose sole study and ambition it was to excel in the elegance of style and composition, to produce a single chapter that might be compared with it. I will mention but one instance, out of several to show that this book was really admired for the beauty of its composition by those who must be allowed to have been competent judges. A poem of Labid Ebn Rabia, one of the greatest Wits in Arabia in Mohammed's time, being fixed upon the gates of the temple of Mecca, an honour allowed to none but the most esteemed performances, none of other poets durst offer any thing of their own in competition with it. But the second chapter of the Koran being fixed up by it soon after, Labid himself (then an idolator) on reading the first verses only, was struck with admiration and immediately professed the religion taught thereby, declaring that such words could proceed from an inspired person only. This Labid was afterwards of great service to Mohammed, in writing answers to satires and invectives that were made on him and on his religion by infidels............
"The style of the Koran is generally beautiful and fluent, especially when it imitates the prophetic manner and scripture phrases. It is concise and often obscure, adorned with bold figures after the eastern taste, and enlivened with sententious expressions, and in many places, especially when the majesty and atributes of God are described, sublime and magnificent, of which the reader cannot but observe several instances, though he must not imagine the translation comes up the original, notwithstanding my endeavours to do it justice.
"Though it be written in prose yet the sentences generally conclude in a long continued rhyme, for the sake of which the sense is often interrupted, and unnecessary repetitions too frequently made, which appear more ridiculous in a translation, where the ornament, such as it is, for whose sake they were made, cannot be perceived. However, the Arabians are so mightily delighted with this jingling, that they employ it in their most elaborate compositions, which they also embellish with frequent passages of, and allusions to the Koran, so that it is next to impossible to understand them without being well versed in the book.
"It is probable the harmony of expression which the Arabians find in the Koran, which might contribute not a little to make them relish the doctrine therein taught, and give an efficacy to their arguments which, had they been nakedly proposed without this rhetorical dress, might not have so easily prevailed. Very extraordinary effects are related of the power of words. well chosen and artfully placed, which are no less powerful either to ravish or amaze than music itself; therefore as much has been ascribed by the best orators to this part of rhetoric as to any others. He must have a very bad ear who is not uncommonly moved with the very cadence of a well-turned sentence; and Mohammed seems not to have been ignorant of the enthusiastic operation of rhetoric on the minds of men; for which reason he has not only employed his utmost skill in these his pretended revelations, to preserve that dignity of style, which might seem not unworthy of the majesty of that Being, whom he gave out the Author of them; and to imitate the prophetic manner of the Old Testament; but he has not neglected even the other arts of oratory; wherein he succeeded so well, and so strangely captivated the minds of his audience that several of his most opponents thought it the effect of "witch-craft and enchantment." (The Preliminary Discourse to the Koran by Sale. PP. 65-67)
"It must be acknowledged too, that the Koran deserves the highest praise for its conception of the Dtvine nature, in reference to the attributes of Power, Knowledge, and Universal Providence and Unity-that its belief and trust in One God of Heaven and Earth is deep and fervent..........it embodies much of noble and deep moral earnestness and sententious wisdom, and has proved that there are elements in it on which mighty nations and conquering..........empires be built." (Radwell's Preface to the Koran P. 15.)
"In the Suras as far as the 24th.........we cannot but notice the entire pre-dominance of the poetical element, a deep appreciation.........of the beauty of natural objects, brief fragmentary and impassioned utterances, denunciation of woe and punishment, expressed for the most part in lines of extreme brevity..........the poetical ornament of rhyme is preserved throughout." (Rodwell's Preface to the Koran, P. 15.)
"In a literary point of view, the Koran is the moat poetical work of the East. The greater portion of it is a rhymed prose, confirmably to the taste which has, from remotest time, prevailed in the above portion of the globe.........It is confessedly, the standard of the Arabic tongue, and abounds with splendid imagery and the boldest metaphors; and, notwithstanding that it is sometimes obscure and verging upon timidity, is generally vigorous and sublime, so as to justify the observation of the celebrated Goethe, that the Koran is a work with whose dulness the reader is at first disgusted, and afterwards attracted by its charms and finally, irresistably ravished by its many beauties." In order to estimate the meritsof the Koran, it should be considered that when the prophet arose eloquence of expression and purity of diction were much cultivated, and that poetry and oratory were held in the highest estimation." "It was to the Koran so considered as a permanent miracle that Mohammed appealed as the chief confirmation of his mission, publicly challenging the most eloquent men in Arabia, then abounding with persons whose sold study it was to excel in the eloquence of style and composition to produce one' single chapter that might compete therewith." "The admiration with which the reading of the Koran inspires the Arabs is due to the magic of its style, and to the care with which Mohammed embellished his prose by the introduction of poetical ornaments; by his giving it a cadenced march and by making the verses rhyme; its variety is also striking, for sometimes, quitting ordinary language, he points, in majestic verses the Eternal, seated on His throne, dispensing laws to the universe; his verses become melodious and thrilling when he describes the everlasting delights of paradise; they are vigorous and harrowing when he depicts the flames of hell." (An Apology for Mohammed and the Koran by John Davenport. PP 64-67.)
"Before he spoke, the orator engaged on his side the affections whether of a public or of a private audience. They applauded his commanding prese~ice, his majestic aspect his piercing eye, his flowing beard, hia countenance which pointed every sensation of his soul, and the gestures that enforced each expression of his tongue. In the familiar offices of life, he scrupulously adhered to the grave and ceremonious politeness of his country; his respectful attention to the rich and the powerful was dignified by his condescension and affability to the poorest citizens of Mecca; the frankness of his manner concealed the artifice of his views, and the habits of courtesy were imputed to personal friendship or universal benevolence; his memory was capacious and retentive, his wit easy and social, his imagination sublime, his judgment clear, rapid and decisive. He possessed the courage both of thought and action; although his designs might gradually expand with success, the first idea which he entertained of his Divine mission bears the stamp of an original and superior genius. The son of Abadallah was brought up in the bosom of the noblest race, in the use of the purest dialect of Arabia, and the fluency of his speech was corrected and enhanced by the practice of discreet seasonable silence." (Gibbon quoted by Davenport, PP. 11-12.)
"At this time Mohammed was in the prime of manhood: his figure was commanding, his aspect majestic, his features regular and most expressive, his black and piercing eye, his nose slightly acquiline, his mouth wellformed, furnished with pearly teeth, while his cheeks were ruddy with robust health. Art had imparted his naturally black hair and beard a lighter chestnut hue. His captivating smile, his rich and sonorous voice, the graceful dignity of his manners, gained him the favourable attention of all whom he addressed. He possessed talents of a superior order-his perception was quick and active, his memory capacious and retentive, his imagination lively and daring, his judgment clear and perspicuous, his courage dauntless, and whatever may be the opinion of some as to the sincerity of his convictions, his tenacity of purpose in the purauit of the great object of his life, and his patience and endurance, cannot but extort the admiration of all. His natural eloquence was enhanced by the use of the purest dialect of Arabia and adorned by the charm of a graceful elocution." (Davenport P. 11.)
"On the graces and intellectual gifts of nature to the son of Abdoollah, the Arabian writers dwell, with the proudest and the fondest satisfaction. His politeness to the great, his affability to the humble, and his dignined bearing to the presumptuous, procured him respect, admiration, and applause. His talents were equally fitted for persuasion or command. Deeply read in the volume of nature, though entirely ignorant of letters, his mind could expand into controversy, with the acutest of his enemies, or contract itself to the apprehensions of the meanest of his disciples. His simple eloquence, rendered impressive by the expression of a countenance wherein awfulness of majesty was tempered by an amiable sweetness, excited emotions of veneration and love; and was gifted with the authoritative air of genius which alike influences the learned and conunands the il1iterate.'(Davenport P. 52) "He expressed himself in pregnant sentences, using neither too few nor too many words." (ibid. P. 14. Foot Note.)
Hence it is clear that Mohammed is the Buddha Maitreya, and not Jesus or Shankaracharya.