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Allah

Allāh (الله) is the proper name of God, and humble submission to His Will, Divine Ordinances and Commandments is the pivot of the faith. He is unique (Wāḥid) and inherently one (ʾAḥad), all-merciful and omnipotent.

Prophet

The Qur'an (القرآن) represents the words of Allāh revealed to Prophet Muhammad, arabic محمد (Peace be upon him) through the archangel Gabriel (جبريل).The Holy Prophet's message transformed the society and moral order of life in the Arabian Peninsula through reorientation of society as regards to identity, world view, and the hierarchy of values.

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The preferred religion

Al-Islam (الإسلام) is the monotheistic and Abrahamic way of life articulated by the Qur'an & by the teachings & the normative example (the Sunnah or سنة & Hadith or حديث‎) of Prophet Muhammad (صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم), the conclusive prophet of Allāh. A person with this belief is a Muslim (مسلم‎).

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The Life of Prophet Muhammad (ﷺ)


      Timeline of the Prophet Muhammad (SAW)'s Life   


569
  • Prophet Muhammad is born (12 Rabi’ al-Awwal 53 AH /17 June 569, a Monday, or 9 Rabi’ al-Awwal 51 AH/20 April 571, a Monday)  (1) 
  • The Prophet is given to the wet nurse Halima.
574
  • Halima brings Prophet Muhammad to his mother in Mecca.
575
  • After the death of the Prophet’s mother, Amina, in Ebva, the Prophet is brought to Mecca by his nurse Umm Ayman and given to the Prophet’s grandfather, Abdulmuttalib.
577
  • The Prophet’s grandfather, Abdulmuttalib, dies. The Prophet is given to his uncle, Abu Talib.
578
  • The Prophet’s journey to Syria with his uncle, Abu Talib. The episode of Bahira, the monk, occurs.
594
  • Prophet Muhammad is made responsible for the trade caravan belonging to the widow Khadijah and he leads her caravan to the city of Busra.
  • The Prophet marries Khadijah.
605
  • The Prophet arbitrates in a dispute among the Quraish tribe about where to place the Black Stone in the Kaaba during repairs. 
610
  • The first revelation in the cave of Mt. Hira, the revelation of the first five verses of Surat al-Alaq (Ramadan).
613
  • After the declaration at Mt. Sara, the Prophet invites people to Islam, starting with his closest relatives.
614
  • The weak Muslims are persecuted by the Quraish.
615
  • The first emigration to Abyssinia.
616
  • The second emigration to Abyssinia.
  • Hamza converts to Islam.
  • Umar converts to Islam, the Prophet and the first Muslims leave the House of Erkam.
  • The Hashim and Muttalib tribes meet near where Abu Talib lives to protect Prophet Muhammad. The unbelievers start social and economic boycotts against the Muslims.
619
  • The boycott is lifted.
620
  • Abu Talib and Khadijah die (The year of sorrow).
  • Prophet Muhammad is married to Sawda bint Zam‘a.(Ramadan).
  • The Prophet takes a journey to Taif with Zaid b. Harisa and returns to Mecca, under the protection of Mut‘im b. Adi (Shawwal).
  • A group of people from the Hazraj tribe in Medina meet with the Prophet and become Muslim during the season of pilgrimage at Aqaba (Dhu al-Hijjah).
 621
  • The Miraj (Ascension) and the prescription of the five daily prayers (27 Rajab).
  • First allegiance at Aqaba. Prophet Muhammad sends Mus‘ab b. Umair to Medina to teach Islam (Dhu al-Hijjah).
622
  • Second allegiance at Aqaba (Dhu al-Hijjah).

Madinan Period

1/622
  • After the second Aqaba allegiance Muslims start to migrate to Medina (Muharram/July).
  • The meeting of unbelievers at Dar al-Nadwa; a decision is taken to assassinate the Prophet (26 Safar/9 September).
  • The migration of Prophet Muhammad with Abu Bakr; they hide in the cave of Thawr (26 Safar/9 September).
  • Departure from the cave of Thawr for Medina (1 Rabi’ al-Awwal/13 September).
  • Arrival at Quba (8 Rabi’ al-Awwal/20 September).
  • The Masjid at Quba is established (Rabi’ al-Awwal/ September).
  • The Prophet leaves Quba and performs the first Friday prayer in the valley of Ranuna, arriving in Medina on the same day and settling in the house of Abu Ayyub al-Ansari (12 Rabi’ al-Awwal/24 September).
  • The start of the construction of the Masjid al-Nabawi (Rabi’al-Awwal/September).
  • First adhan for prayer is called.
 1/623
  • The establishment of brotherhood between the emigrants and the helpers (Ansar) (Muahat-Brotherhood) (Rajab/January)..
  • The regulation of the constitutional agreement of Medina and the establishment of the boundaries of Muslim Medina (Ramadan/March).
  • Permission to fight against unbelievers is granted.
  • The night campaign (Sariyya) led by Hamza, the Is campaign (Sifulbahr) (Ramadan/March).
  • Completion of the construction of the Masjid al-Nabawi (Shawwal/April).
  • The night campaign led by Sa‘d b. Ebu Vaqqas, the Harrar campaign (Dhu al-Qi’dah /May).
  • The establishment of the market place in Medina.
  • The formation of the Suffa (porch or veranda) of the Masjid al-Nabawi.
 2/623
  • The Prophet fasts for Ashura; this is recommended to all Muslims (10 Muharram/14 July).
  • The Abva campaign (Waddan) (Safar/August).
  • The Buvat campaign (Rabi’ al-Awwal/September).
  • The first Badr campaign (Sefevan) (Rabi’ al-Awwal/September).
  • The Ushaira campaign (Zul‘ushayra) (Jumada al-awwal /November).
 2/624
  • The night raid led by the commander Abdullah b. Jahsh, the Batn-i Nahla campaign (Rajab/January).
  • The change of the direction of prayer (qibla) from al-Masjid al-Aqsa in Jerusalem to al-Masjid al-Haram in Mecca (Rajab/January).
  • The introduction of the mandatory Ramadan fast (Sha’aban/February).
  • Start of the tarawih (nightly) prayer during the month of Ramadan (1 Ramadan/26 February).
  • The battle of Badr. (17 Ramadan/ 13 March).
  • The revelation of Surat al-Anfal.
  • The death of the Prophet’s daughter Ruqiyyah (Ramadan/ Mach).
  • Payment of alms (fitra) at the end of Ramadan becomes mandatory (Ramadan/ March).
  • The first Eid al-Fitr (celebration after Ramadan), and the first congregational Eid prayer (1 Shawwal /27 Mach).
  • The marriage of the Prophet to Aisha (Shawwal/April).
  • The Bani Kaynuqa campaign (Shawwal /April).
  • The marriage of Ali and Fatima. (Dhu al-Qi’dah /May or Dhu al-Hijjah/June).
  • The Seviq campaign (5 Dhu al-Hijjah/29 May).
  • The first Eid al-Adha (celebration of sacrificing an animal - sheep, cow…) (10 Dhu al-Hijjah/3 June).
  • The appropriation of the cemetery of Jannat al-Baqi‘(eternal heaven) after the death of Uthman b. Maz‘un of the Muhajirun (one of the emigrants during the Hijrah) (Dhu al-Hijjah/June).
  • Zakat (charitable alms) is prescribed.
 3/624
  • The marriage of Uthman and Umm Qulsum, the daughter of the Prophet (Rabi’ al-Awwal/August -September).
  • The death of Ka‘b b. Ashraf (14 Rabi’ al-Awwal/4 September).
  • The Zuemer campaign (Gatafan) (Rabi’ al-Awwal/September).
  • The Bahran campaign (Bani Suleym) (Jumada al-awwal /November).
 3/625
  • The Prophet’s marriage to Hafsa (Sha’aban/January).
  • The birth of Hasan (Sha’aban/January-February or 15 Ramadan/1 March).
  • The Prophet’s marriage to Zaynab bint Khuzaimah (Ramadan/February-March).
  • The Uhud campaign (7 or 11 Shawwal /23 or 27 March).
  • The Hamra al-Asad campaign (Started from Medina, 8 or 12 Shawwal /24 or 28 March).
 4/625
  • The Raji‘ episode (the night campaign by Mersed b. Ebu Mersed.) (Safar/July).
  • The Bi’rimauna episode (Safar/July).
  • The Bani Nadir campaign (Rabi’ al-Awwal/August).
  • First order of prohibition of wine (Rabi’ al-Awwal/August -September).
  • The death of Zaynab bint Khuzaimah, the Prophet’s wife (Rabi’ al-thani/October).
 4/626
  • The conversion of Bani Abs group into Islam in Medina.
  • The birth of Hussein (5 Sha’aban/10 January).
  • The marriage of the Prophet with Umm Salama (Shawwal/March-April).
  • The campaign of Badru’l-mav‘id (Dhu al-Qi’dah/April).
  • The death of Fatima bint Esed, mother of Ali.
 5/626
  • The campaign of Zaturriqa‘ and the introduction of the salat al-havf (prayer for fear) (10 Muharram/11 June).
  • The campaign of Dumat al-Jandal (25 Rabi’ al-Awwal/24 August).
  • The observation of a lunar eclipse in Medina; the khusuf prayer (prayer performed at the time of an eclipse) is led by the Prophet (Jumada al-thani/October).
  • 400 people arrive from Mudhayna and convert to Islam in Medina (Rajab/December).
 5/627
  • The Bani Mustaliq campaign (Mureysi‘) (Sha’aban-Ramadan/January-February).
  • The episode of ifq (slander).
  • The marriage of the Prophet to Juvayreya bint Kharis.
  • A census is taken in Medina (Shawwal /February-March).
  • The Handaq campaign (Ahzab) (Dhu al-Qi’dah/April).
  • The marriage of the Prophet to Zaynab bint Jahsh; the revelation about the prohibition of adopting children (el-Ahzâb 33/4-5) (Dhu al-Qi’dah/April).
  • The Bani Kurayza campaign (end of Dhu al-Qi’dah /April ).
6/627
  • The Bani Lihyan campaign (Rabi’ al-Awwal/July).
  • The first night raid by Muhammed b. Maslama, the first Zulkassa campaign (Rabi’ al-thani/August).
  • The second night raid by Abu Ubeyde b. Jarrah, the second Zulkassa campaign (end of Rabi’ al-Awwal /September).
  • The night raid by Zaid b. Harisa, the Tarif campaign (Jumada al-thani/October-November).
  • The night raid by Zaid b. Harisa, the first Vadilkura campaign (Rajab/November-December).
 6/628
  • Abdurrahman b. Avf is sent to Dumat al-Jandal (Sha’aban 6/December 627-January 628).
  • The night raid by Zaid b. Harisa, the Madian campaign (Sha’aban 6/December 627-January 628).
  • The night raid by Ali, the Fadak campaign (Sha’aban 6/December 627-January 628).
  • The night raid by Zaid b. Harisa, the second Vadilkura campaign (Ramadan/January-February).
  • The night raid by Abdullah b. Rawaha on Khaybar for reconnaissance (Ramadan/February).
  • The drought in Medina and the Prophet’s prayer for rain.
  • The eclipse of the sun and the Prophet’s kusuf prayer (end of Shawwal /March).
  • Umra (lesser pilgrimage) is performed (Dhu al-Qi’dah/March).
  • The visit of the Prophet to the grave of his mother.
  • Bai‘at al-Ridwan after the capture of Uthman when he was sent as an envoy to the Quraish (Dhu al-Qi’dah/March-April).
  • The treaty of Hudaybiyah is drawn up (Dhu al-Hijjah/April).
  • The revelation of Surat al-Fath.
  • The conversion of committees from the Bani Huzaa, Bani Aslam and Bani Husheni to Islam in Medina.
 7/628
  • The sending of envoys or diplomatic letters expounding Islam to foreign countries and rulers, particularly the emperors of Byzantium and Persia (Muharram/May).
  • The conversion of the ruler of Abyssinia, Ashame, to Islam.
  • The Egyptian ruler sends Mariya to the Prophet with several gifts.
  • Abu’l-As converts to Islam and is remarried to Zaynab, the Prophet’s daughter (Muharram/May).
  • The Khaybar campaign (Muharram-Safar/May-June).
  • Attempt by Zaynab bint Kharis to poison Prophet Muhammad.
  • The marriage of the Prophet to Safiyya bint Huyayy.  
  • The death of the Prophet’s wet nurse Suvayba.
  • The governor of Yemen, Bazan, converts to Islam (Jumada al-awwal /September).
  • The night raid of Vadilkura (Jumada al-thani/October).
  • Agreement with the Jews of Tihama.
  • The night raid by Umar, the Turaba campaign (Sha’aban/December).
  • The night raid by Abu Bakr, the Najd campaign (Sha’aban/December).
  • The night raid by Bashir b. Sa‘d, the Fadak campaign (Sha’aban/December).
 7/629
  • The night raid by Galib b. Abdullah, the Meyfaa campaign (Ramadan /January).
  • Umra is preformed, Umratu’l-kaza (Dhu al-Qi’dah/March).
  • The marriage of Prophet Muhammad to Umm Khabiba bint Abu Sufyan.
  • The marriage of Prophet Muhammad to Maymuna bint Kharis (Dhu al-Qi’dah/March).
 8/629
  • The conversions of Khalid b. Velid, Amr b. As and Uthman b. Talha to Islam (1 Safar/31 May).
  • Zaynab, the Prophet’s daughter, dies (Safar/June).
  • The battle of Muta (Jumada al-awwal/September).
  • The night raid by Amr b. As, the Zatussalasil campaign (Jumada al-thani /October).
  • The night raid by Abu Ubaida b. Jarrah, the Sifulbahr (Habat) campaign (Rajab /November).
  • The conversion of the Bani Sulaym and Bani Gifar tribes to Islam and  their contribution to the conquest of Mecca under the command of Khalid b. Velid.
  • Attempts by Abu Sufyan to maintain peace after the Quraish violate the Hudaybiyah Treaty.
 8/630
  • Beginning of the campaign for the conquest of Mecca (13 Ramadan/4 January).
  • The conquest of Mecca (20 Ramadan/11 January).
  • The Bani Mahzum tribe converts to Islam.
  • Hisham b. As is sent to Yalamlam, Khalid b. Said to Uraina, and Khalid b. Velid to Nahla to demolish the idol of Uzza. Sa‘d b. Zaid al-Ashhali is sent to demolish the idol of Manat at Mushallal. Amr b. As is sent to demolish the idol of Suva‘ of the Bani Huzail at  Ruhat. Tufeyl b. Amr ed-Dawsi is sent to demolish the idol of Zulkaffain of Amr b. Humama (Ramadan/ January).
  • The Hunayn campaign (11 Shawwal/1 February).
  • The night raid by Halid b. Velid on Bani Jazima to invite them to Islam (Shawwal/February).
  • The Taif campaign (Shawwal/February).
  • Distribution of the loot from the battle of Hunayn (Dhu al-Qi’dah/February).
  • Prophet Muhammad meets with the Shayma, the daughter of his wet nurse, for the first time since leaving the family.
  • Prophet Muhammad performs Umra (19 Dhu al-Qi’dah/10 March).
  • The night raid by Muhajir b. Abu Umayya, the San‘a campaign (28 Dhu al-Qi’dah/19 March).
  • The night raid by Ziyad b. Lebid, the Hadramut campaign.
  • Amr b. As is sent to the rulers of Oman, and the brothers Jaifer and Abd b. Culenda as envoys (Dhu al-Qi’dah/March).
  • Ala b. Hadrami is sent with Abu Hurairah to the ruler of Bahrain Mundhir b. Sava as an envoy.
  • The birth of Ibrahim, the son of Prophet Muhammad (Dhu al-Hijjah /March - April).
  • Committees from the Bani Sa‘laba, Bani Suda’, Bani Bahila, Bani Sumala, Bani Jarm, Ehabish, Bani Ak and Bani Huzail convert to Islam in Medina.
 9/630
  • Zakat (alms) officials are sent to some of the cities and tribes (Muharram/April-May).
  • Abbad b. Bishr is sent to the Bani Sulaim and Bani Muzaina, Rafi‘ b. Makis al-Juhani to the Bani Juhaina, Dahhak b. Sufyan al-Kilabi to the Bani Kilab, Busr b. Sufyan al-Ka‘bi to the Bani Ka‘b, Ibnu’l-Lutbiyya al-Azdi to the Bani Zubyan, Malik b. Nuvaira to the Bani Hanzale b. Malik, and Amr b. As to Fazare and Valid b. Ukba are sent to the Bani Mustaliq to collect zakat.
  • The night raid by Uyaina b. Hisn, the Bani Tamim campaign and the conversion of the Bani Tamim tribe to Islam in Medina (Muharram/May).
  • A committee from the Bani Asad converts to Islam in Medina.
  • The organization of the first naval campaign under the command of Alkama b. Mucazziz (Rabi’ al-Awwal/July-August).
  • The Fuls idol of the Tay tribe is destroyed by Ali.
  • The night raid by Ukkasha b. Mihsan against the Bani Bali and the Bani Uzra, the Jinab campaign.
  • Prophet Muhammad leads the funeral pray of Ashame, the ruler of Abyssinia (Rajab/October).
  • The Ila and tahyir episodes.
  • The Tabuk campaign (Rajab/October).
  • The campaign led by Khalid b. Velid against Abdulmalik, the leader of the Dumat al-Jandal, agreement struck between the Prophet and Ukaidar.
  • Committees representing the people of Jarba, Azruh, Makna, Ayla (Aqaba) and Tabuk arrive to strike a peace agreement with the Prophet.
  • Dihya b. Khalifa is sent from Tabuk to the Byzantine emperor Heraklaios for the second time to invite him to Islam.
  • Umm Qulsum, the Prophet’s daughter, dies.
  • Committees from the Bani Ukayl, Bani Kalb, Bani Kilab, Bani Tucib, Bani Gatafan, Bani Hanzala b. Malik, Bani Kudaa, Bali and Bani Behra convert to Islam in Medina.
  • The Christian Bani Taghlib arrives in Medina to make a peace treaty.
  • Ka‘b b. Zuhair converts to Islam; the Prophet gives his cloak to Ka‘b b. Zuhair.
  • Envoys sent by the Bani Sa‘d b. Baker tribes to Medina and convert to Islam.
  • The Bani Juzam committee converts to Islam at Medina.
  • The destruction of Masjid al-Dirar by the hypocrites.
  • The Hemyar Kings are invited to Islam and they accept Islam.
  • A committee from the Bani Hamdan, Bani Fazare, Bani Murra and the Sakif tribe convert to Islam in Taif.
  • Abu Sufyan and Mugira b. Shuba are sent to demolish the idol of Lat.
 9/631
  • The death of Abdullah b. Ubayy b. Salul, the leader of the hypocrites (Dhu al-Qi’dah/February).
  • The first Hajj (major pilgrimage) led by Abu Bakr (Dhu al-Qi’dah- Dhu al-Hijjah/March).
  • Ali is sent to Mecca to inform the unbelievers about the rules of the Surat al- Tawba (Dhu al-Hijjah/March).
  • A committee arrives from the Najran Christians in Medina and an agreement is reached with Prophet Muhammad (Dhu al-Hijjah/April).
 10/631
  • The night raid by Khalid b. Velid, the Najran campaign and the conversion of a committee from Bani Kharis to Islam in Medina (Rabi’ al-Awwal/July).
  • The night raid by Ali, the Yemen campaign and the conversion of the Bani Mazhij to Islam (Ramadan/December).
  • Jarir b. Abdullah is sent to demolish the idol and temple of Zulhalasa.
  • Prophet Muhammad submits the Holy Quran to the Angel Gabriel twice. The Prophet retires for the last twenty days of Ramadan (Ramadan/December).
  • Committees from the Bani Azd, Abna, Bani Tay, Bani Amir b. Sa‘saa, Bani Kenda, Bani Tucib, Bani  Rehaviyyin, Bani Gafek, Bani Mahra, Bani Hanifa, Bani Ans, Bani Murad, Bani Abdulkays, Bani Hilal, Bani Ruha and Bani Zubaida convert to Islam in Medina.
  • Musailima and the liar's correspondence with the Prophet.
 10/632
  • The death of Ibrahim, the son of Prophet Muhammad (29 Shawwal/28 January).
  • Departure from Medina for the final major pilgrimage (26 Dhu al-Qi’dah/23 February).
  • The Farewell Sermon (9 Dhu al-Hijjah/7 March).
  • The final circumambulation of the Kaaba (14 Dhu al-Hijjah/12 March Thursday).
  • A committee from the Bani Muhareb converts to Islam in Medina (Dhu al-Hijjah/March).
  • The death of the Yemen governor Bazani; eleven governors are appointed to Yemen.
  • The revelation of Surat al-Nasr (Dhu al-Hijjah/March).
  • Rayhana bint Sham, the Prophet’s wife, dies.
 11/632
  • A committee from the Bani Naha converts to Islam in Medina (15 Muharram/12 April).
  • Usama's army is ordered to begin (May).
  • The Prophet falls ill (27 Safar/24 May Sunday).
  • Aswad al-Ansi, who falsely claimed to be a prophet, dies (8 Rabi’ al-Awwal /3 June).
  • Prophet Muhammad dies (13 Rabi’ al-Awwal/8 June Monday).
  • The burial of Prophet Muhammad (14 Rabi’ al-Awwal/9 June Tuesday).