The Life of Prophet Muhammad (ﷺ)
Companions of Prophet Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Him)
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
In Islam, the Ṣaḥābah (“Companions”) were the companions of the Islamic prophet Muḥammad. This form is plural; the singular is masculine ṣaḥābiyy, feminine ṣaḥābiyyah.
The Companions are all those who met the Prophet (peace be upon him.) and died as Muslims. Scholars have said that they were 114,000 in number [as stated by Abu Zur'ah, the teacher of Imam Muslim, and recorded by as-Suyootee]. Allah has praised in many Qur’anic verses:
”You are the best of peoples ever raised for mankind, you enjoin good and forbid evil, and you believe in Allah.” [3:110] “And the first to embrace Islam of the Muhajiroon (the Emigrants from Makkah) and the Ansar (the citizens of Al-Madeenah who helped the Muhajiroon) and also those who followed them exactly (in Faith). Allah is well-pleased with them as they are well pleased with Him. He has prepared for them Gardens under which rivers flow, to dwell therein forever. That is the supreme success.” [9:100] “Indeed, Allah was pleased with the believers when they gave their pledge to you (O Muhammad) under the tree. He knew what was in their hearts and He sent down calmness and tranquility upon them…” [48:18]
Our Attitude Towards Them
Our attitude towards the Sahaba should be that of love, respect, peace and purity of our hearts and tongues. Allah has described this in His saying:
“And those who come after them say: ‘Our Lord! Forgive us and our brethren who have preceded us in Faith, and put not in our hearts any hatred against those who have believed.’” [59:10]
And the Prophet (s.a.w.) said,
“The sign of faith is love of the Ansar and the sign of hypocrisy is the hatred of Ansar” [al-Bukharee, Muslim].
Why should we not be thankful to those who believed in the Prophet, assisted him, strove with their lives and wealth to make the Word of Allah supreme, preserved and transmitted to us our Religion? Who is more deserving that we pray for them and speak of them in the best manner and think of them with the best thoughts?
The Prophet (peace be upon him) advised us:
“When my Companions are mentioned then withhold” [Saheeh, at-Tabaranee]. And he also said, “Do not abuse my Companions, for if any of you were to spend gold equal to (mountain of) Uhud in charity, it would not equal a handful of one of them or even half of that” [al-Bukharee, Muslim]. And he said, “Whoever abuses my Companions, upon them is the curse of Allah, the angels and all the people” [Saheeh, At-Tabaranee].
It is incumbent upon the Muslims to love Allah; to love His Messenger, to love what the Prophet brought as guidance and as his practise; to love his descendants, his Companions, his wives, his children, his servants, and to love those who love them and hate those who hate them, as this is the meaning of loving for Allah’s sake and hating for Allah’s sake, and that is the most excellent kind of faith.
Scholar Al-Fudayl ibn `Iyyad said, “Indeed, I love those whom Allah loves. They are those from whom the Companions of Muhammad (peace be upon him) are safe. I hate those whom Allah hates. They are the people of the deviant paths and innovation.”
The Best of the Companions
We should note that the best of the Ummah, after the Prophet (peace be upon him) were Abu Bakr, then ‘Umar, then ‘Uthman, then ‘Ali. As far as the Caliphate is concerned, Ibn Taymeeyah has said that anyone who “objects against anyone of these regarding this order of caliphate, he will be regarded misguided.”
True Muslims also, “accept all the superiorities and grades that have been described about them in the Qur’an, the Hadith and by concensus. They give superiority to those who spent and fought for the sake of Allah before the victory, that is, truce of Hudaibiyah over those who spent and fought after that. They consider al- Muhajireen (those who migrated from Makkah to al-Madeenah for Islam) to be superior to al-Ansar (the helpers of al-Madeenah who supported the Muhajireen). They have faith in what Allah has said about the 313 persons on the occasion of the battle of Badr that, ‘
their sins are pardoned’ [al- Bukharee].
And none of those who gave their pledge to the Prophet (s.a.w.) under the tree will get into Fire as the Prophet (s.a.w.) has stated,
‘Allah is doubtlessly pleased with them and they are pleased with Allah.’ [Muslim]
The Companions’ Noble Deeds
The deeds and virtues of the Sahaba, may Allah be pleased with them all, should be what every Muslim should strive to emulate to the best of one’s ability. Their behaviour and sincerity were praised by Allah and His Messenger (peace be upon him)and that suffices as proof.
The Sahaba were undoubtedly the best in terms of understanding the religious obligations, the Sunnah of the Prophet and the way of establishing the Islamic teachings. Their belief is an example for us, as Allah says in the Qur’an:
“So if they believe in the like of that which you believe, they are rightly guided, but if they turn away, then they are only in opposition. So Allah will suffice you against them. And He is the All-Hearer, the All-Knower.” [2:137]
The Best of People
The Prophet (peace be upon him) said,
”The best of my people are my generation then those who come after them, then those who come after them, then there will come a people in whom there will be no good.”
[At-Tabaranee, authenticated by al-Albanee]
Also, in al-Bukharee, “The best of the people are my generation, then those after them, then those after them…”
This is also reported by Muslim, Aboo Dawood, at-Tirmidhee, An-Nasa’ee and others.
Following Their Footsteps
All this should suffice as evidence that the correct understanding of Islam is that of the Sahaba and all those that follow their path, in truth. They are the best generation of Islam and they understood Qur’an and Sunnah the best.
We should approach the Deen in the manner they approached it. We are obliged to follow them, and that means, first and foremost, to have the same creed as they did, no deviations, no additions and no deletions. We also have to approach `ibadah in the same way, no innovations, no additions and no deletions. We take all of the Sunnah and refer all disagreements to Allah and His Messenger, as Allah (s.w.t.) commanded us in the Qur’an [4:59].
To follow the Sahaba does not only mean to have the same understanding of the prescripts of belief as they did. That belief must be manifested in our actions and to follow the Sahaba also means to possess their other characteristics, some of which have been identified by our scholars as:
The full acceptance of the Revelation
The deep influence of the faith and the revelation on one’s life
The application of this knowledge to the individual and collective life
Inviting others to do good deeds
Enjoining what is right and forbidding what is wrong
Giving advice to every Muslim
Practicing Jihad for the Sake of Allah
Also, the Sahaba presented every action according to the scales of the Sharee`ah, they used to remember and think a lot about death, they were forgiving to those who wronged them in any way, they had a great respect for the honour of other Muslims, for whom they desired only good, they were mindful of their prayers, they used to put the Hereafter before this Dunya, they realized that they could not thank Allah enough and they stayed away from the sinful and their gatherings. Allah, The Exalted, most appropriately describes them: “Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, and those who are with him (the Companions) are severe against disbelievers, and merciful among themselves. You see them bowing and falling down prostrate (in prayer), seeking Bounty from Allah and (His) Good Pleasure. The mark of them (i.e. of their faith) is no their faces (foreheads) from the traces of (their) prostration (during prayers).” [48:29] We ask Allah to enable us to learn about the lives of the Sahaba and to make our lives resemble theirs. For, as Ibn Taymeeyah said,
“Whoever will read their biographies with understanding and insight, and will come to know the rewards bestowed by Allah upon them, he will certainly realize that these are the best among humans after the Prophets. Neither there has been anyone like them nor will there be.”
List of his most renowned companions
· Ali Ibn Abi Talib
· Asmaa bint Abi Bakr
· Abu Bakr As-Siddiq
· Abu Ubaida ibn al-Jarrah
· Said ibn Zayd
· Bilal ibn Ribah
· Anas ibn Malik
· Hamza ibn Abd al-Muttalib
· Jabir ibn Abdullah al-Ansari
· Jafar ibn Abi Talib
· Khalid ibn al-Walid
· Khadijah bint Khuwaylid
· Sad Ibn Abi Waqqas
· Salman the Persian
· Talhah ibn Ubayd-Allah
· Umar bin Al-Khattab
· Uthman ibn Affan
· Umm Hakim
· Umm Salamah
· Zubayr ibn al-Awwam
· Zayed Bin Haris
· Abd al-Rahman ibn Awf
Sahaba in the Qur’an
Apart from the prophetic Sunnah, Sunni’s also derive proof of the uprightness of the Sahaba from the Qur’an. Since all Muslims believe in the authenticity of the Qur’an (as opposed to different Hadeeth collections between the Shia and Sunni), Sunni’s use the Qur’an as an undeniable proof that the Sahaba were upright.
The following verses (among others) from different Qur’anic chapters are used to prove the uprightness of the Sahaba:
- Chapter 3, Verse 103 (Al-i-Imran):
103. And hold fast, all of you together, to the Rope of Allah (i.e. this Qur’an), and be not divided among yourselves, and remember Allah’s Favour on you, for you were enemies one to another but He joined your hearts together, so that, by His Grace, you became brethren (in Islamic Faith), and you were on the brink of a pit of Fire, and He saved you from it. Thus Allah makes His Ayat (proofs, evidence, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.,) clear to you, that you may be guided.
- Chapter 8, Verse 72 (Al-Anfal):
72. Verily, those who believed, and emigrated and strove hard and fought with their property and their lives in the Cause of Allah as well as those who gave (them) asylum and help, – these are (all) allies to one another. And as to those who believed but did not emigrate (to you O Muhammad), you owe no duty of protection to them until they emigrate; but if they seek your help in religion, it is your duty to help them except against a people with whom you have a treaty of mutual alliance; and Allah is the All-Seer of what you do.
- Chapter 8 verse 74-75:
74. And those who believed, and emigrated and strove hard in the Cause of Allah, as well as those who gave (them) asylum and aid – these are the believers in truth, for them is forgiveness and Rizqun Karim (a generous provision i.e. Paradise). 75. And those who believed afterwards, and emigrated and strove hard along with you (in the Cause of Allah), they are of you. But kindred by blood are nearer to one another (regarding inheritance) in the decree ordained by Allah. Verily, Allah is the All-Knower of everything.
- Chapter 9, Verse 40 (At-Tawba):
40. If you help him (Muhammad) not (it does not matter), for Allah did indeed help him when the disbelievers drove him out, the second of the two; when they (Muhammad and Abu Bakr) were in the cave, he (Muhammad) said to his companion (Abu Bakr): “Be not sad (or afraid), surely Allah is with us.” Then Allah sent down His Sakinah (calmness, tranquility, peace) upon him, and strengthened him with forces (angels) which you saw not, and made the word of those who disbelieved the lowermost, while the Word of Allah that became the uppermost; and Allah is All-Mighty, All-Wise.
- Chapter 9, Verse 100:
100. And the foremost to embrace Islam of the Muhajirun (those who migrated from Makkah to Al-Madinah) and the Ansar (the citizens of Al-Madinah who helped and gave aid to the Muhajirun) and also those who followed them exactly (in Faith). Allah is well-pleased with them as they are well-pleased with Him. He has prepared for them Gardens under which rivers flow (Paradise), to dwell therein forever. That is the supreme success.
- Chapter 9, 117- 118:
117. Allah has forgiven the Prophet, the Muhajirun and the Ansar who followed him (Muhammad) in the time of distress (Tabuk expedition), after the hearts of a party of them had nearly deviated (from the Right Path), but He accepted their repentance. Certainly, He is unto them full of Kindness, Most Merciful. 118. And (He did forgive also) the three [who did not join the Tabuk expedition whose case was deferred (by the Prophet)] (for Allah’s Decision) till for them the earth, vast as it is, was straitened and their own selves were straitened to them, and they perceived that there is no fleeing from Allah, and no refuge but with Him. Then, He forgave them (accepted their repentance), that they might beg for His pardon [repent (unto Him)] Verily, Allah is the One Who forgives and accepts repentance, Most Merciful.
- Chapter 24, Verses 11-20 (An-Noor):
11. Verily those who brought forth the slander (against ‘Aishah) are a group among you. Consider it not a bad thing for you. Nay, it is good for you. Unto every man among them will be paid that which he had earned of the sin, and as for him among them who had the greater share therein, his will be a great torment. 12. Why then, did not the believers, men and women, when you heard it (the slander), think good of their own people and say: “This (charge) is an obvious lie?” 13. Why did they not produce four witnesses? Since they (the slanderers) have not produced witnesses! Then with Allah they are the liars. 14. Had it not been for the Grace of Allah and His Mercy unto you in this world and in the Hereafter, a great torment would have touched you for that whereof you had spoken. 15. When you were propagating it with your tongues, and uttering with your mouths that whereof you had no knowledge, you counted it a little thing, while with Allah it was very great. 16. And why did you not, when you heard it, say: “It is not right for us to speak of this. Glory be to You (O Allah)! This is a great lie.” 17. Allah forbids you from it and warns you not to repeat the like of it forever, if you are believers. 18. And Allah makes the Ayat plain to you, and Allah is All-Knowing, All-Wise. 19. Verily, those who like that (the crime of) illegal sexual intercourse should be propagated among those who believe, they will have a painful torment in this world and in the Hereafter. And Allah knows and you know not. 20. And had it not been for the Grace of Allah and His Mercy on you, (Allah would have hastened the punishment upon you). And that Allah is full of Kindness, Most Merciful.
- Chapter 33, Verse 6 (Al-Ahzab):
6. The Prophet is closer to the believers than their own selves, and his wives are their (believers’) mothers (as regards respect and marriage). And blood relations among each other have closer personal ties in the Decree of Allah (regarding inheritance) than (the brotherhood of) the believers and the Muhajirun, except that you do kindness to those brothers (when the Prophet joined them in brotherhood ties). This has been written in the (Allah’s Book of Divine) Decrees – (Al-Lauh Al-Mahfuz).”
- Chapter 33, Verse 32-33:
32. O wives of the Prophet! You are not like any other women. If you keep your duty (to Allah), then be not soft in speech, lest he in whose heart is a disease (of hypocrisy, or evil desire for adultery) should be moved with desire, but speak in an honourable manner. 33. And stay in your houses, and do not display yourselves like that of the times of ignorance, and perform As-Salat (Iqamat-as-Salat), and give Zakat and obey Allah and His Messenger. Allah wiHes only to remove Ar-Rijs (evil deeds and sins) from you, O members of the family (of the Prophet), and to purify you with a thorough purification.
- Chapter 33, Verse 53:
53. O you who believe! Enter not the Prophet’s houses, unless permission is given to you for a meal, (and then) not (so early as) to wait for its preparation. But when you are invited, enter, and when you have taken your meal, disperse without sitting for a talk. Verily, such (behaviour) annoys the Prophet, and he is shy of (asking) you (to go); but Allah is not shy of (telling you) the truth. And when you ask (his wives) for anything you want, ask them from behind a screen: that is purer for your hearts and for their hearts. And it is not (right) for you that you should annoy Allah’s Messenger, nor that you should ever marry his wives after him (his death). Verily, with Allah that shall be an enormity.
- Chapter 48, Verses 18-21 (Al-Fath):
18. Indeed, Allah was pleased with the believers when they gave the Bai’ah (pledge) to you (O Muhammad) under the tree: He knew what was in their hearts, and He sent down As-Sakinah (calmness and tranquility) upon them, and He rewarded them with a near victory. 19. And abundant spoils that they will capture. And Allah is Ever All-Mighty, All-Wise. 20.Allah has promised you abundant spoils that you will capture, and He has hastened for you this, and He has restrained the hands of men from you: that it may be a sign for the believers, and that He may guide you to the Straight Path. 21. And other (victories and much booty He promises you) which are not yet within your power; indeed Allah compasses them. And Allah is Ever Able to do all things.
- Chapter 48, Verse 29:
29. Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah. And those who are with him are severe against disbelievers, and merciful among themselves. You see them bowing and falling down prostrate (in prayer), seeking Bounty from Allah and (His) Good Pleasure. The mark of them (i.e. of their Faith) is on their faces (foreheads) from the traces of prostration (during prayers). This is their description in the Taurat (Torah). But their description in the Injeel (Gospel) is like a (sown) seed which sends forth its shoot, then makes it strong, and becomes thick and it stands straight on its stem, delighting the sowers, that He may enrage the disbelievers with them.Allah has promised those among them who believe and do righteous good deeds, forgiveness and a mighty reward (i.e.Paradise).
- Chapter 57, Verse 10 (Al-Hadid):
10. And what is the matter with you that you spend not in the Cause of Allah? And to Allah belongs the heritage of the heavens and the earth.Not equal among you are those who spent and fought before the conquering (of Makkah, with those among you who did so later). Such are higher in degree than those who spent and fought afterwards. But to all Allah has promised the best (reward). And Allah is All-Aware of what you do.
- Chapter 59, Verses 8-10 (Al-Hashr):
8. (And there is also a share in this booty) for the poor emigrants, who were expelled from their homes and their property, seeking Bounties from Allah and to please Him, and helping Allah (i.e. helping His religion) and His Messenger. Such are indeed the truthful (to what they say). 9. And (it is also for) those who, before them, had homes (in Al-Madinah) and had adopted the Faith, love those who emigrate to them, and have no jealousy in their breasts for that which they have been given (from the booty of Banu An-Nadir), and give them (emigrants) preference over themselves even though they were in need of that. And whosoever is saved from his own covetousness, such are they who will be the successful. 10. And those who came after them say: “Our Lord! Forgive us and our brethren who have preceded us in Faith, and put not in our hearts any hatred against those who have believed. Our Lord! You are indeed full of kindness, Most Merciful.
- Chapter 60, Verse 1 (Al-Mumtahina):
1. O you who believe! Take not My enemies and your enemies as friends, showing affection towards them, while they have disbelieved in what has come to you of the truth, and have driven out the Messenger and yourselves (from your homeland) because you believe in Allah your Lord! If you have come forth to strive in My Cause and to seek My Good Pleasure, (then take not these disbelievers and polytheists as your friends). You show friendship to them in secret, while I am All-Aware of what you conceal and what you reveal. And whosoever of you (Muslims) does that, then indeed he has gone (far) astray from the Straight Path.
Lists of Ten Promised Sahaba who will go to Heaven:
According to the narrations of Sahi Al bukhari and Muslims following are the names of ten companions who were promisedParadisewhile living by Prophet Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Him)
· Abu Bakr As-Siddiq
· Umar bin Al-Khattab
· Uthman ibn Affan
· Ali ibn Abi Talib
· Talha ibn Ubayd-Allah
· Zubayr ibn al-Awwam
· Abd al-Rahman ibn Awf
· Sa’ad ibn Abi Waqqas
· Abu Ubaida ibn al-Jarrah
· Said ibn Zayd