The Life of Prophet Muhammad (ﷺ)
THE LAST SERMON
9th Dhu al-Hijjah, 10 AH (632 CE)
While standing at `Arafah during the Farewell Hajj, and after praising and glorifying God, the Messenger of God (SAW) said:
"O people, listen attentively to me for I do not know if I will ever meet you again after this year and in this place."
A tall man stood and asked, ‘So what do you advise us to do?’ He replied, "Worship your Lord, pray your five daily prayers, fast the month of Ramadan, perform Hajj to the House of God, give your zakat willingly, obey those placed in charge over you – and you shall enter the Paradise of your Lord."
"All interest from the pre-Islamic period of ignorance is to be abolished; the first that I shall abolish is that of al-`Abbas. Your capital is your own; "do not do wrong and you will not be wronged."
"O people, the months and days have once again been set to the way they were on the day that God created the heavens and the earth. The number of months with God is twelve, four of which are sacred, protected from violations being committed therein, these are Rajab that comes between Jumada and Sha’ban, and three which are consecutive: Dhul-Qa’dah, Dhul-Hijjah and Muharram. "That is the true and upright religion; do not wrong yourselves in them."
"O people, those having deposits should award them to those who entrusted them with them."
"Woe to you! Be careful! You will meet your Lord and He will ask you about your deeds so do not apostate after me by striking the necks of one another. Satan has given up hope of being worshipped by those who pray, but not so in sowing dissension amongst you."
"O people, Satan has despaired of being worshipped in your land till the end of time but he has hope in your doing (wrong) acts that you think insignificant.
Beware of (harming) your religion through such acts because he shall be obeyed in these and shall be pleased. Beware of him (lest he harm) your religion."
"O people, fear God with regards to women and treat them well for they are as captives with you. You took them as a trust from God and you are permitted marital relations with them in accordance to God’s law. You have rights over them and they have rights over you. One of the rights you have over them is that they not allow others besides yourselves to set foot on your furnishings, and that they do not give permission to anyone you dislike entering your homes. They should not disobey you in that which is good. If they do this, you have no right to (chastise them). They are due their food and their clothing in kindness. Admonish those women you fear are rebellious and high-handed, refuse to sleep with them in bed, and if you strike (them), do so without viciousness."
"Listen well to me and live! Do not do wrong! Do not do wrong! Do not do wrong! The (retaliation) of a transgression should not be meted to any save the transgressor.
The father should not transgress against his son and the son should not transgress against his father. Know that every Muslim is a brother to another Muslim and that the Muslims are brothers, therefore no man should have access to his brother’s wealth, unless with his goodwill."
"O people, I have left you the Book of God and the Tradition of his Prophet, you will not go astray if you adopt them, so live by them."
"O people, your Lord is one and your father is one. The Arab is not superior to a non-Arab, nor a non-Arab to an Arab, nor a red-skinned person to a black-skinned person, and nor a black-skinned person to a red-skinned person, except through God-consciousness."
"O people, what day is this?" They replied, ‘A sacred day.’ He asked, "What land is this?" They replied, ‘A sacred land.’ He asked, "What month is this?" They replied, ‘A sacred month.’ He said, "God has made your blood, your possessions and your honour sacred, just as this day in this month and in this land is sacred, this until you meet your Lord." And he repeated this over and over."
"Let those of you who are present inform those who are absent, perhaps the absent would retain more than some of those present. There will be no prophet after me and no nation after you."
Then he raised his head and said, "Have I not conveyed (the message)? Have I not conveyed (the message)? Have I not conveyed (the message)?" They said, ‘Yes!’ He then raised his hands and said three times, "O God! Bear witness that I have conveyed (the message)!"
Below is a thematic overview of the Last Sermon.
"All mankind is from Adam and Eve, an Arab has no superiority over a non-Arab nor a non-Arab has any superiority over an Arab; also a white has no superiority over a black nor a black has any superiority over a white except by piety and good action."
"Regard the life and property of every Muslim as a sacred trust. Return the goods entrusted to you to their rightful owners. Hurt no one so that no one may hurt you. Remember that you will indeed meet your Lord and that He will indeed reckon your deeds."
"O People, it is true that you have certain rights with regard to your women, but they also have rights over you. Remember that you have taken them as your wives only under God’s trust and with His permission… Do treat your women well and be kind to them for they are your partners and committed helpers."
"God has forbidden you to take usury (interest), therefore all interest obligation shall henceforth be waived. Your capital, however, is yours to keep. You will neither inflict nor suffer any inequity. God has judged that there shall be no interest."